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Vitamin D, Zinc, Magnesium etc. are needed to fight COVID – April 2022

Deciphering the immunoboosting potential of macro and micronutrients in COVID support therapy

Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2022) DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-20075-7
Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Ali I. Al-Gareeb, Safaa Qusti, Eida M. Alshammari, Deepak Kaushik, Ravinder Verma & Hayder M. Al-kuraishy


Virus barriers
The immune system protects human health from the effects of pathogenic organisms; however, its activity is affected when individuals become infected. These activities require a series of molecules, substrates, and energy sources that are derived from diets. The consumed nutrients from diets help to enhance the immunity of infected individuals as it relates to COVID-19 patients. This study aims to review and highlight requirement and role of macro- and micronutrients of COVID-19 patients in enhancing their immune systems. Series of studies were found to have demonstrated the enhancing potentials of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins, copper, zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and selenium) in supporting the immune system’s fight against respiratory infections. Each of these nutrients performs a vital role as an antiviral defense in COVID-19 patients. Appropriate consumption or intake of dietary sources that yield these nutrients will help provide the daily requirement to support the immune system in its fight against pathogenic viruses such as COVID-19.
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Vitamin D (from pdf)

Vitamin D fights against acute infections of the respiratory tract. Recent studies reported a reduced risk of infections with COVID-19 on increased intake of vitamin D as shown in Fig. 2. It plays a critical role by affecting the maturation of immune cells (Grant et al. 2020). Studies reported a reduced level of vitamin D in healthy individuals particularly at the end of winter season, this coincides with COVID-19 discovery in winter of 2019 (Arabi et al. 2020). Vulnerable patients are advised to increase their vitamin D intake. Due to the stay-at-home order, there is reduced exposure of people to sunlight. Therefore, it is very important to increase the consumption of dietary sources rich in vitamin D (Zabeta-kis et al. 2020). Vitamin D-rich foods include oily fish and cod liver oil, among others (Larsen et al. 2011). The lack of vitamin D in cold weather periods is connected to viral outbreaks. The proper vitamin D level prevents the risk of chronic conditions like high blood pressure, cancer, heart diseases, stroke, diabetes, and hypertension in people with respiratory infections (Muscogiuri et al. 2017).
Vitamin D performs a series of function in the body, such as protection of the respiratory tract, tight junction preservation, and elimination of encapsulated viruses via cathelici-din and defensin activation, and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine production by the innate immune system; thus, the risk of cytokine storm development is reduced, which will consequently lead to pneumonia. Considering that going outside is not very feasible and the exposure to sunlight is limited, foods now serve as the best alternative source of vitamin D. Fish, egg yolk, liver, yogurt, and milk are known foods that contain vitamin D. Several body defense cells possess vitamin D receptors which enhance efficacy after bonding to ligands, and therefore, vitamin D greatly impacts on immunity. Vitamin D promotes monocyte differentiation into macrophages, thereby increasing their killing capacity, affecting cytokines release, and promoting antigen presentation. Additionally, metabolites of vitamin D help in regulating the release of proteins with antimicrobial properties that destroy pathogens and therefore reduce infections of the lungs (Gombart 2009; Greiller and Martineau 2015). Research has shown that vitamin D is present in meat (Ovesen et al. 2003). Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), which is obtained through skin exposure to sunlight, has greater potency than ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) found in mushrooms (Holick 2008; Norman 2008). Vulnerability to respiratory tract infection has been reported in some studies in people with low vitamin D in the blood (Cannell et al. 2006; Jollie et al. 2013 Also, several meta-analyses reported that the addition of vitamin D to food decreases the risk of respiratory tract infections in humans (Charan et al. 2012; Autier et al. 2017). Its lack impedes the functions of the immune system due to its immunomodulatory role, thereby increasing inborn immunity by antiviral peptide production, which helps in the improvement of mucosal defenses (Gom-bart et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2010).

Magnesium (from PDF)

Magnesium plays a pivotal role in immune system function regulation by strongly affecting immunoglobulin production, immunoglobulin M (IgM) lymphocyte binding, immune cell adhesion, T helper-B cell adherence, antibody-dependent cytolysis, and response of macrophages to lymphokines (Liang et al. 2012). Its role in an immune response against viral infections has been reported (Chaigne-Delalande et al. 2013). Magnesium plays a key role both in physiology and pathology. Newly, it has been hypothesized that its low level may favor the transition from mild to critical clinical manifestations of COVID-19. Decreased NK and T-cell cytotoxicity because of magnesium deficiency may illuminate the vulnerability of elder, hypertensive, obese, and diabetic patients to SARS-CoV-2 infection (Faa et al. 2021). Furthermore, its deficiency upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokine creation in monocytes and raises NFkB expression (Fanni et al. 2020).
Despite the nonexistence of controlled trials, magnesium supplementation for supportive treatment in COVID-19-suf-fering patients should be encouraged. This may be valuable in all phases of the COVID-19. It is very well known that magnesium is involved in over 600 enzymatic reactions in human cells. Its level may explain an increased risk of severe COVID-19 (Fanni et al. 2020).
A combined oral treatment of older COVID-19 patients with magnesium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 reduced the percentage of patients needing oxygen and ICU support (Tan et al. 2020a, b).
An observational cohort study was executed for evaluating the combined effect of vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 in older subjects (> 50 years) with COVID-19. Eighteen subjects received DMB already onset of primary outcome and 26 subjects did not. Fewer treated subjects than controls needed beginning of oxygen therapy amid hospitalization (17.6 vs 61.5%, p = 0.006) (Tan et al. 2020a, b).

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VitaminDWiki – COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D - studies, reports, videos

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