Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015 Apr 1;308(7):L587-602. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00117.2014. Epub 2015 Jan 16.
Lykkedegn S1, Sorensen GL2, Beck-Nielsen SS1, Christesen HT3.
1Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; Clinical Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark;
2Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular and Renal Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
3Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; Clinical Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; henrik.christesen at rsyd.dk.
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are major complications to preterm birth. Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in pregnancy. We systematically reviewed the evidence of the impact of vitamin D on lung development, surfactant synthesis, RDS, and BPD searching PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases with the terms vitamin D AND (surfactant OR lung maturation OR lung development OR respiratory distress syndrome OR fetal lung OR prematurity OR bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Three human studies, ten animal studies, two laboratory studies, and one combined animal and laboratory study were included. Human evidence was sparse, allowing no conclusions. BPD was not associated with vitamin D receptor polymorphism in a fully adjusted analysis. Animal and laboratory studies showed substantial positive effects of vitamin D on the alveolar type II cell, fibroblast proliferation, surfactant synthesis, and alveolarization. These data support the hypothesis of hypovitaminosis D as a frequent, modifiable risk factor of RDS and BPD, which should be tested in randomized controlled trials on pregnant women, those with threatening preterm delivery, or in the preterm neonates. Future experimental and ]human studies should aim to identify optimal time windows, vitamin D doses, and cut-off levels for 25-hydroxyvitamin D in interventions against RDS, BPD, and later adverse respiratory outcomes.
Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
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items in BOTH of categories: infants and Breathing
- RSV kills 100,000 children annually around the world (Vitamin D can help)– May 2022
- Small doses of Vitamin D do not reduce childhood breathing allergies – meta-analysis Oct 2022
- Vitamin D reduces childhood allergic airway diseases (confirmed by metabolomics this time) – May 2022
- Wheezing and asthmatic children have weaker Vitamin D responses - May 2022
- Croup (due to viruses) has surged with Omicron - March 2022
- Allergy medications may be improved by Vitamin D (6X for birch pollen in this case) – Aug 2021
- Infant Respiratory Infections not reduced by mothers taking small amount of vitamin D (28,000 weekly)– RCT July 2021
- Recurrent RTI treatment success: Conventional 71 pcnt, Vitamin D 96 pcnt – March 2021
- The 6 percent of infants hospitalized for ARI are 2.2 X more likely to be Vitamin D deficient – April 2021
- Acute pneumonia in children 3X less likely if greater than 30 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2021
- Preemie Respiratory Distress Syndrome is 5X more likely if low vitamin D – Dec 2020
- Recurrent Wheezing in children is associated with low Vitamin D – several studies
- Respiratory viral infection (RSV) and low vitamin D - many studies
- Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Infants reduced 5.9 X by daily 600 IU of vitamin D (China) - March 2020
- Gene which predicts wheezing is associated with low vitamin D – Oct 2019
- Bronchiolitis in children associated with both pollution and low solar – July 2019
- Allergic Rhinitis in infants treated by 1,000 IU vitamin D daily – June 2019
- Asthmatic children 5X more likely to have a poor Vitamin D Receptor – June 2019
- Babies 3.6X more likely to go to hospital for asthma if asthmatic mother had low vitamin D while pregnant – June 2019
- Childhood Asthma somewhat reduced by 2400 IU vitamin D late in pregnancy (néed more, earlier) March 2019
- Respiratory Distress Syndrome in preemies 5 X more likely if poor vitamin D receptor – Feb 2019
- Black infant recurrent wheezing rate dropped from 42 percent to 31 percent with just 400 IU of vitamin D – RCT Dec 2018
- Asthma in child 2.3 X more likely if both parents asthmatic (unless add Vitamin D) – VDAART Nov 2018
- Immature lungs in immature newborns – Vitamin D helps – Sept 2018
- Bronchiolitis had 1.3 X longer hospitalization if low Vitamin D (1016 infants) – Sept 2018
- Pneumonia in Egyptian Children 3.6 X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Aug 2018
- Childhood pneumonia not treated by 100,000 IU of vitamin D – Cochrane (need more, inhaled) – July 2018
- Pneumonia is increasing (now 1 in 6 child deaths), more vitamin D studies needed – June 2018
- Childhood Respiratory Health hardly improved with 600 IU of vitamin D (need much more) – May 2018
- Indoor pollution is a problem with obese black asthmatic children – May 2018
- Both parents smoke – child’s vitamin D level was 30 percent lower and worse asthma – May 2018
- Allergic rhinitis in children reduced somewhat during pollen season by just 1,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Jan 2018
- Half the risk of Influenza -A in infants taking 1200 IU of vitamin D for 4 months – RCT Jan 2018
- Rapid newborn breathing (transient tachypnea) associated with low vitamin D – Dec 2017
- Preemies with poor lungs (Respiratory distress syndrome) have low levels of vitamin D – Nov 2017
- Risk of infant Asthma cut in half if mother supplemented Vitamin D to get more than 30 ng – RCT Oct 2017
- Respiratory infection in infant was 7 X more likely if low cord Vitamin D – March 2017
- Viral Pneumonia in children 52 X more-likely if very low vitamin D (trend) – June 2017
- Childhood asthma problems eliminated for months by 600,000 IU of Vitamin D injection – June 2017
- Childhood allergy, asthma and eczema associated with repeated low vitamin D tests – Oct 2016
- Childhood asthma about 1.3 times more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – meta-analysis Aug 2016
- Five times less mite allergy when vitamin D added in mid pregnancy and to infant – RCT April 2016
- Hay fever (allergic rhinitis) risk reduced 20 percent for each 100 IU of vitamin D during early pregnancy – Feb 2016
- Asthma in 3 year olds decreased somewhat with 4,000 IU during pregnancy – RCT Jan 2016
- Respiratory tract infections in childhood – vitamin D is needed, no consensus of how much – Oct 2015
- RSV (bronchitis and viral pneumonia) in infants associated with low vitamin D and antibiotics – Aug 2015
- Respiratory distress after preterm birth is more likely if low vitamin D – review April 2015
- All preemies with Chronic Lung Disease had low vitamin D levels– July 2015
- Low dose Vitamin D during pregnancy and infancy results in strange acute respiratory infection response – April 2015
- Newborn acute lower respiratory tract infection associated with low maternal vitamin D – March 2015
- The role of vitamin D in respiratory distress among newborns Aug 2015
"RDS develops in about 1% of all newborn infants and is the leading cause of death in preterm infants."
"The incidence decreases with advancing gestational age, from about 50% in babies born at 26–28 weeks, to about 25% at 30–31 weeks."
"In a cohort study, the researchers found that 28% of the infants with 25(OH)D <10 ng/ml had RDS compared to 14% of the infants with higher 25(OH)D. RDS was reduced 3.34 times in newborns with higher vitamin D levels."