Vitamin D status at birth and acute respiratory infection hospitalisation during infancy
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol . 2021 Apr 1. doi: 10.1111/ppe.12755
Rajneeta Saraf 1, Berit P Jensen 2, Carlos A Camargo Jr 3, Susan M B Morton 4, Ma Jing 2, Chris W Sies 2, Cameron C Grant 1 4 5
Background: Hospital admission for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) during early childhood is a global public health concern. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent during pregnancy and infancy. Evidence indicates that vitamin D supplementation prevents ARIs.
Objectives: To determine whether vitamin D deficiency at birth is associated with ARI hospitalisations during infancy.
Methods: We performed a nested case-control study in children aged 0-12 months. Cases had ≥1 ARI hospitalisation and 4 controls were individually matched to each case. Newborn 25(OH)D concentration was measured on dried blood spots using two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Hospital admissions were measured using health care records. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration in cases and controls was compared, and covariates of ARI hospitalisation during infancy were assessed using conditional logistic regression analysis.
Results: Six per cent of the cohort (n = 384) had an ARI hospitalisation during infancy, and 1536 controls were matched to cases. Median DBS [25(OH)D] was lower among ARI cases than controls (46 nmol/l vs. 61 nmol/L). Median 25(OH)D levels were lower for those hospitalised ≥2 times (47, IQR 36, 58) vs. those hospitalised once (52, IQR 42, 62) vs. the controls and also lower for those who stayed in the hospital for ≥3 days (45, IQR 36, 54) vs 1-2 days (48, IQR 38, 59) compared to the controls. After adjustment for season of birth and covariates describing demographic, antenatal, perinatal, and infant characteristics, DBS 25(OH)D concentration (<50 nmol/L) at birth was associated with increased odds of ARI hospitalisation during infancy (odds ratio 2.20, 95% confidence interval 1.48, 2.91).
Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency at birth is associated with increased odds of ARI hospitalisations in infants. The findings have implications for a developed country like New Zealand where vitamin D supplementation is not routinely recommended and the burden of ARI hospitalisation in young children is high.
Studies in categories Infant-Child + Breathing + Intervention are listed here:
- Chronic tonsillitis virtually eliminated in children by Vitamin D (50,000 IU weekly) – RCT May 2023
- Infant Respiratory Infections not reduced by mothers taking small amount of vitamin D (28,000 weekly)– RCT July 2021
- Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Infants reduced 5.9 X by daily 600 IU of vitamin D (China) - March 2020
- Allergic Rhinitis in infants treated by 1,000 IU vitamin D daily – June 2019
- Childhood Respiratory Health hardly improved with 600 IU of vitamin D (need much more) – May 2018
- Allergic rhinitis in children reduced somewhat during pollen season by just 1,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Jan 2018
- Half the risk of Influenza -A in infants taking 1200 IU of vitamin D for 4 months – RCT Jan 2018
- Risk of infant Asthma cut in half if mother supplemented Vitamin D to get more than 30 ng – RCT Oct 2017
- Childhood asthma problems eliminated for months by 600,000 IU of Vitamin D injection – June 2017
- Five times less mite allergy when vitamin D added in mid pregnancy and to infant – RCT April 2016
- Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 less likely with vitamin D: Pregnancy 2000 IU, Infant 800 IU – RCT Oct 2014
- 2000 IU of vitamin D should improve toddlers health in winter – RCT almost completed Feb 2014
- Recurrence of child pneumonia delayed by 100000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Oct 2010
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