Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation affects pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Public Health Nutrition / Volume 19 / Issue 01 / January 2016, pp 156-163 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015000609
Maryam Karamalia1, Zatollah Asemia 2 c1, Maedeh Ahmadi-Dastjerdia 1 and Ahmad Esmaillzadeh a3a4
a1 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Islamic Republic of Iran
a2 Department of Nutrition, Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran
a3 Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran
a4 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran
Objective The present study was designed to assess the effects of Ca+vitamin D supplementation on pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty women with GDM. Participants were divided into two groups to receive Ca+vitamin D supplements or placebo. Individuals in the Ca+vitamin D group (n 30) received 1000 mg Ca/d and two pearls containing 1250 µg (50 000 IU) of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) during the intervention (one at study baseline and another at day 21 of the intervention); those in the placebo group (n 30) received two placebos of vitamin D at the mentioned times and placebos of Ca every day for 6 weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were determined.
Setting A urban community setting in Arak, Iran.
Subjects Sixty women with GDM and their newborns, living in Arak, Iran were enrolled.
Results Women treated with Ca+vitamin D had a significant decrease in
- caesarean section rate (23·3 % v. 63·3 %, P=0·002) and
- maternal hospitalization (0 v. 13·3 %, P=0·03)
compared with those receiving placebo.
In addition, newborns of GDM women randomized to Ca+vitamin D had no case of macrosomia, while the prevalence of macrosomia among those randomized to placebo was 13·3 % (P=0·03).
Lower rates of hyperbilirubinaemia (20·0 % v. 56·7 %, P=0·03) and hospitalization (20·0 % v. 56·7 %, P=0·03) were also seen in the supplemented group of newborns than in the placebo group.
Conclusions Ca+vitamin D supplementation for 6 weeks among pregnant women with GDM led to decreased caesarean section rate and maternal hospitalization, and decreased macrosomia, hyperbilirubinaemia and hospitalization in newborns.
This was previously published as Gestational Diabetes reduced with 50,000 IU of vitamin D every 3 weeks and daily Calcium – RCT June 2014
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Diabetes and Pregnancy
- Gestational diabetes risk reduced 1.5X by Vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2021
- Gestational Diabetes – increased risk if poor Vitamin D Receptor – 2 Meta-Analyses 2021
- Gestational Diabetes 2.4X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor (region in China) – June 2019
- Vitamin D food fortification during pregnancy reduced gestational diabetes in daughters by 13 percent – Nov 2018
- Gestational Diabetes 3 X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor (Turkey) – May 2019
- Type 1 Diabetes risk increased if high postpartum Vitamin D binding protein – Jan 2019
- Vitamin D treats Gestational Diabetes, decreases hospitalization and newborn complications – meta-analysis March 2019
- Maternal Diabetes and Risk of Autism in Offspring – JAMA June 2018
- Gestational Diabetes 39 percent more likely if insufficient Vitamin D – Meta-analysis March 2018
- Gestational Diabetes 1.9 X more likely if low vitamin D – review Dec 2017
- Congenital Heart Disease is associated with gestational diabetes in first trimester (need Vitamin D and Omega-3 early) Dec 2017
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus associated with 4 Vitamin D genes – Oct 2015
- Gestational diabetes 30 percent less likely if consumed more than 400 IU of vitamin D daily – Oct 2017
- Low vitamin D plus gestational diabetes resulted in increased ICU use, SGA – Oct 2016
- Gestational diabetes treated by Vitamin D plus Omega-3 – RCT Feb 2017
- Gestational Diabetes reduce 3 times by 5,000 IU of Vitamin D – RCT Jan 2016
- Gestational Diabetes treated with 50,000 IU every two weeks – RCT Sept 2016
- Low vitamin D in pregnancy – epigenetic pancreas problems in offspring (mice) – May 2016
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Gestational Diabetes 3.7 X more likely if smoke and have low vitamin D (no surprise) – Feb 2016
- Gestational Diabetes helped by Vitamin D and Calcium (also less C-section and LGA) – RCT Jan 2016
- Diabetes in child not prevented by a tiny amount of vitamin D during pregnancy – Nov 2015
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 1.5X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Gestational Diabetes increasing, especially in dark skinned women (low vitamin D) - 2007
- Increased Gestational Diabetes and poorer infant health associated with low vitamin D – June 2015
- Gestational Diabetes in 10 percent of pregnancies, vitamin D probably helps – Jan 2014
- Gestational diabetes – Vitamin D and Calcium provided huge benefits – RCT March 2015
- Gestational diabetes reduced by just two 50,000 IU doses of vitamin D – RCT Nov 2014
- Gestational Diabetes reduced with 50,000 IU of vitamin D every 3 weeks and daily Calcium – RCT June 2014
- Gestational Diabetes reduced 40 percent by 5,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT April 2014
- Insulin resistance during pregnancy improved with 50,000 IU of vitamin D every 2 weeks – RCT April 2013
- Will 1600 IU vitamin D prevent gestational diabetes – no, not enough, July 2013
- Vitamin D protects against many types of health problems – review May 2013
- Dr. Holick video on vitamin D - March 2013
- Gestational diabetes 2.2X more likely below 10 ng of vitamin D – June 2012
- Gestational diabetes 60 percent more likely below 20 ng of vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2012
- Type I diabetes 2X more likely if mother had low vitamin D – Jan 2012
- 300,000 IU injection loading dose of vitamin D3 stopped gestational diabetes in RCT – Oct 2011
- Less muscle and insulin resistance for children of vitamin D deficient mothers – Jan 2011
- Vitamin D Levels at Birth May Predict Obesity Risk at age 3 - Oct 2010