Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2016 Feb 5. doi: 10.1111/ppe.12278. [Epub ahead of print]
Dodds L1, Woolcott CG1, Weiler H2, Spencer A1, Forest JC3, Armson BA4, Giguère Y3.
1Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Departments of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Pediatrics, Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, Canada.
2School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada.
3Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, CHU de Québec Research Centre, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
4Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), has been shown in some studies to be inversely associated with gestational diabetes risk. Recently, it has been suggested that maternal smoking status may modify this relationship. We explored the association between 25(OH)D concentration and gestational diabetes and determined if there was an interaction between smoking and 25(OH)D.
A nested case-control study was conducted in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Quebec City, Quebec. Women were recruited before 20 weeks gestation and 25(OH)D was measured. Cases were women who developed gestational diabetes and controls were frequency matched to cases on study site, gestational age at blood draw, and season and year of blood draw. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models were tested for multiplicative and additive interaction, which was estimated by relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI).
The study included 395 gestational diabetes cases and 1925 controls. Women who smoked during pregnancy and had 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L had an aOR = 3.73 [95% CI 1.95, 7.14] compared to non-smokers with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L. Additive interaction was detected between smoking status and 25(OH)D [RERI = 2.44, 95% CI 0.03, 4.85].
Our study supports the inverse association of vitamin D status with gestational diabetes risk, particularly among women who smoke during pregnancy. More research is needed to confirm this finding and, if confirmed, to determine the mechanism by which the combined effect of smoking and low vitamin D status increases the risk of developing gestational diabetes.
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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- Fact: Lower Vitamin D ==> Increased risk of Gestational Diabetes
- Fact: Smoking ==> lower vitamin D
- No surprise: Smoking ==> increased risk of Gestational Diabetes
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Diabetes and Pregnancy
- Diabetes 30% more likely in those with low birth weight - June 2023
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 10X more-likely if low vitamin D in first trimester – July 2022
- Gestational Diabetes 2.1 X more likely if less than 30 ng of Vitamin D - July 2022
- Gestational diabetes risk reduced 1.5X by Vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2021
- Gestational Diabetes – increased risk if poor Vitamin D Receptor – 2 Meta-Analyses 2021
- Gestational Diabetes 2.4X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor (region in China) – June 2019
- Vitamin D food fortification during pregnancy reduced gestational diabetes in daughters by 13 percent – Nov 2018
- Gestational Diabetes 3 X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor (Turkey) – May 2019
- Type 1 Diabetes risk increased if high postpartum Vitamin D binding protein – Jan 2019
- Vitamin D treats Gestational Diabetes, decreases hospitalization and newborn complications – meta-analysis March 2019
- Maternal Diabetes and Risk of Autism in Offspring – JAMA June 2018
- Gestational Diabetes 39 percent more likely if insufficient Vitamin D – Meta-analysis March 2018
- Gestational Diabetes 1.9 X more likely if low vitamin D – review Dec 2017
- Congenital Heart Disease is associated with gestational diabetes in first trimester (need Vitamin D and Omega-3 early) Dec 2017
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus associated with 4 Vitamin D genes – Oct 2015
- Gestational diabetes 30 percent less likely if consumed more than 400 IU of vitamin D daily – Oct 2017
- Low vitamin D plus gestational diabetes resulted in increased ICU use, SGA – Oct 2016
- Gestational diabetes treated by Vitamin D plus Omega-3 – RCT Feb 2017
- Gestational Diabetes reduce 3 times by 5,000 IU of Vitamin D – RCT Jan 2016
- Gestational Diabetes treated with 50,000 IU every two weeks – RCT Sept 2016
- Low vitamin D in pregnancy – epigenetic pancreas problems in offspring (mice) – May 2016
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Gestational Diabetes 3.7 X more likely if smoke and have low vitamin D (no surprise) – Feb 2016
- Gestational Diabetes helped by Vitamin D and Calcium (also less C-section and LGA) – RCT Jan 2016
- T1 Diabetes in child not prevented by a tiny amount of vitamin D during pregnancy – Nov 2015
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 1.5X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Gestational Diabetes increasing, especially in dark skinned women (low vitamin D) - 2007
- Increased Gestational Diabetes and poorer infant health associated with low vitamin D – June 2015
- Gestational Diabetes in 10 percent of pregnancies, vitamin D probably helps – Jan 2014
- Gestational diabetes – Vitamin D and Calcium provided huge benefits – RCT March 2015
- Gestational diabetes reduced by just two 50,000 IU doses of vitamin D – RCT Nov 2014
- Gestational Diabetes reduced with 50,000 IU of vitamin D every 3 weeks and daily Calcium – RCT June 2014
- Gestational Diabetes reduced 40 percent by 5,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT April 2014
- Insulin resistance during pregnancy improved with 50,000 IU of vitamin D every 2 weeks – RCT April 2013
- Will 1600 IU vitamin D prevent gestational diabetes – no, not enough, July 2013
- Vitamin D protects against many types of health problems – review May 2013
- Dr. Holick video on vitamin D - March 2013
- Gestational diabetes 2.2X more likely below 10 ng of vitamin D – June 2012
- Gestational diabetes 60 percent more likely below 20 ng of vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2012
- Type I diabetes 2X more likely if mother had low vitamin D – Jan 2012
- 300,000 IU injection loading dose of vitamin D3 stopped gestational diabetes in RCT – Oct 2011
- Less muscle and insulin resistance for children of vitamin D deficient mothers – Jan 2011
- Vitamin D Levels at Birth May Predict Obesity Risk at age 3 - Oct 2010