Vitamin D and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review Based on Data Free of Hawthorne Effect
Yanbo Zhang, Yunhui Gong, Hongmei Xue, Jingyuan Xiong, Guo Cheng
BJOG online: 15 December 2017, DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.15060 V
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Diabetes and Pregnancy
- Gestational Diabetes 2.4X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor (region in China) – June 2019
- Vitamin D food fortification during pregnancy reduced gestational diabetes in daughters by 13 percent – Nov 2018
- Gestational Diabetes 3 X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor (Turkey) – May 2019
- Type 1 Diabetes risk increased if high postpartum Vitamin D binding protein – Jan 2019
- Vitamin D treats Gestational Diabetes, decreases hospitalization and newborn complications – meta-analysis March 2019
- Maternal Diabetes and Risk of Autism in Offspring – JAMA June 2018
- Gestational Diabetes 39 percent more likely if insufficient Vitamin D – Meta-analysis March 2018
- Gestational Diabetes 1.9 X more likely if low vitamin D – review Dec 2017
- Congenital Heart Disease is associated with gestational diabetes in first trimester (need Vitamin D and Omega-3 early) Dec 2017
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus associated with 4 Vitamin D genes – Oct 2015
- Gestational diabetes 30 percent less likely if consumed more than 400 IU of vitamin D daily – Oct 2017
- Low vitamin D plus gestational diabetes resulted in increased ICU use, SGA – Oct 2016
- Gestational diabetes treated by Vitamin D plus Omega-3 – RCT Feb 2017
- Gestational Diabetes reduce 3 times by 5,000 IU of Vitamin D – RCT Jan 2016
- Gestational Diabetes treated with 50,000 IU every two weeks – RCT Sept 2016
- Low vitamin D in pregnancy – epigenetic pancreas problems in offspring (mice) – May 2016
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Gestational Diabetes 3.7 X more likely if smoke and have low vitamin D (no surprise) – Feb 2016
- Gestational Diabetes helped by Vitamin D and Calcium (also less C-section and LGA) – RCT Jan 2016
- Diabetes in child not prevented by a tiny amount of vitamin D during pregnancy – Nov 2015
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 1.5X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Gestational Diabetes increasing, especially in dark skinned women (low vitamin D) - 2007
- Increased Gestational Diabetes and poorer infant health associated with low vitamin D – June 2015
- Gestational Diabetes in 10 percent of pregnancies, vitamin D probably helps – Jan 2014
- Gestational diabetes – Vitamin D and Calcium provided huge benefits – RCT March 2015
- Gestational diabetes reduced by just two 50,000 IU doses of vitamin D – RCT Nov 2014
- Gestational Diabetes reduced with 50,000 IU of vitamin D every 3 weeks and daily Calcium – RCT June 2014
- Gestational Diabetes reduced 40 percent by 5,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT April 2014
- Insulin resistance during pregnancy improved with 50,000 IU of vitamin D every 2 weeks – RCT April 2013
- During pregnancy even 400 IU helps metabolic status – RCT July 2013
- Will 1600 IU vitamin D prevent gestational diabetes – no, not enough, July 2013
- Vitamin D protects against many types of health problems – review May 2013
- Dr. Holick video on vitamin D - March 2013
- Gestational diabetes 2.2X more likely below 10 ng of vitamin D – June 2012
- Gestational diabetes 60 percent more likely below 20 ng of vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2012
- Type I diabetes 2X more likely if mother had low vitamin D – Jan 2012
- 300,000 IU loading dose of vitamin D3 stopped gestational diabetes in RCT – Oct 2011
- Less muscle and insulin resistance for children of vitamin D deficient mothers – Jan 2011
- Vitamin D Levels at Birth May Predict Obesity Risk at age 3 - Oct 2010
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly prevalent disorder, associated with low blood vitamin D (VD) level.
Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between VD and GDM.
EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane library and China Biology Medicine disc were searched till May 2017. The references of previous studies were screened.
Observational studies on the relationship between VD and GDM free from Hawthorne effect and randomized controlled trials of VD supplementation during pregnancy for preventing or treating GDM were included.
Data Collection and Analysis
Data and information of included articles were extracted by duplicate using piloted tables. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Cochrane Handbook were used for quality assessment. Random-effects models were used for meta-analyses. Heterogeneity tests, sensitive analysis, and analysis of publication bias were conducted.
Eighty-seven observational studies and 25 randomized controlled trials involving 55859 and 2445 subjects respectively were included. Low blood VD level during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of GDM (OR = 1.850, 95% CI: 1.471, 2.328). Blood VD level for subjects with GDM were lower than the controls. Blood VD level was associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.100 and -0.351), whereas the correlation between blood VD level and fasting insulin (FINS) might be concealed by publication bias. VD intervention during pregnancy could change blood level of VD, FINS, FPG, HOMA-IR, glutathione, C-reactive protein, and lipid.
Low blood VD level could increase the risk of GDM, and VD supplementation during pregnancy could ameliorate the condition of GDM.