Review: Beyond conventional therapies: Complementary and alternative medicine in the management of hypertension: An evidence-based review.
Pak J Pharm Sci. 2018 Jan;31(1):237-244.
Wong AP1, Kassab YW2, Mohamed AL2, Abdul Qader AM1.
1 Faculty of Medicine, Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS), Selangor, Malaysia.
2 Department of hospital and clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS), Selangor, Malaysia.
- Overview Hypertension and Vitamin D
- Blood pressure reduced by monthly 100,000 IU of vitamin D in those who were deficient – RCT Oct 2017
- Arterial stiffness reduced by a single dose of 100,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Dec 2014
- Hypertension reduced by Omega-3, especially if previously untreated – meta-analysis July 2014
- Oral magnesium supplements decrease high blood pressure (SBP>155 mmHg) in hypertensive subjects on anti-hypertensive medications: a targeted meta-analysis. July 2013
7 studies of 6+ months. Start systolic > 155 mm ==> reduce by 19 mm
- WebMD analysis of 74 supplements for Hypertension
- Reduce Blood Pressure—Naturally March 201 LEF
Certain foods and nutrients may help promote healthy blood pressure. These include nuts, vitamin D, magnesium, coenzyme Q10, French maritime pine bark extract, anthocyanins, omega-3 fats, resveratrol, acetyl-L-carnitine, and melatonin.
- Melatonin interacts with Vitamin D in Multiple Sclerosis patients
- Melatonin appears to also use the Vitamin D Receptor – Oct 2019
Items in both categories Hypertension and Magnesium:
- Magnesium reduces hypertension - FDA allows claim - Jan 2022
- Hypertension reduced by Magnesium plus 3,000 IU of vitamin D for 12 weeks – RCT July 2022
- More Magnesium needed to decrease diabetes, cardio, HT (body weight has increased) - March 2021
- Hypertension treatment needs at least 600 mg of Magnesium (49 trials) – Jan 2021
- The Role of Magnesium in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Disorders – April 2022
- Reduce blood pressure by 9 mm with triple hypertensive drug or 19 mm with Magnesium – April 2018
- Hypertension nonconventional therapies: Magnesium, melatonin, Vitamin C, etc. – Jan 2018
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Prehypertension risk is increased by 78% if low Magnesium – Aug 2015
- Preeclampsia inversely proportional to serum Magnesium – Oct 2014
- Hypertension 1.5X more likely if low level of Magnesium - Oct 2014
Hypertension is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, Hypertension is estimated to cause 7.5 million deaths, about 12.8% of the total of all deaths. This accounts for 57 million disability adjusted life years (DALYS) or 3.7% of total DALYS. This led WHO to set a target of 25% reduction in prevalence by 2025. To reach that, WHO has adopted non-conventional methods for the management of hypertension? Despite worldwide popularity of such non-conventional therapies, only small volume of evidence exists that supports its effectiveness. This review attempted to make a critical appraisal of the evidence, with the aim to (1) describe the therapeutic modalities frequently used, and (2) review the current level of evidence attributable to each modality. Databases from Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PUBMED, and EMBASE were searched from 2005-2015. A total of 23 publications have been identified and selected. Out of these, 15 systematic reviews and/or meta-analysis of RCTs, 5 RCTs, 1 non-RCT, and 2 observational studies without control. Among those 23 publications, therapeutic modalities identified are: (fish oil, qigong, yoga, coenzyme Q10, melatonin, meditation, vitamin D, vitamin C, monounsaturated fatty acids, dietary amino-acids, chiropractic, osteopathy, folate, inorganic nitrate, beetroot juice, beetroot bread, magnesium, and L-arginine.
The followings were found to have weak or no evidence: fish oil, yoga, vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acid, dietary amino-acids, and osteopathy.
Those found to have significant reduction in blood pressure are: magnesium, qigong, melatonin, meditation, vitamin C, chiropractic, folate, inorganic nitrate, beetroot juice and L-arginine.
Coenzyme Q10 on the other hand, showed contradicting results were some studies found weak or no effect on blood pressure while others showed significant blood pressure reduction effect. By virtue of the research designs and methodologies, the evidence contributed from these studies is at level 1. Results from this review suggest that certain non-conventional therapies may be effective in treating hypertension and improving cardiac function and therefore considered as part of an evidence-based approach.