The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration and risk of disease death in men: modification by magnesium intake
European Journal of Epidemiology, April 2015, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 343-347
Jaakko Mursu jaakko.mursu at uef.fi, Tarja Nurmi, Sari Voutilainen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jyrki K. Virtanen, doi: 10.1007/s10654-015-0006-9.
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, P. O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland
- Vitamin D levels were measured, Magnesium levels were not measured
- Magnesium determined by 4-day food recording - and up to 19 year delay until death
thus ignoring Magnesium supplementation and Magnesium in cells
Increased chance of death
1.3 X if low vitamin D (ignoring Magnesium)
1.6 X if low vitamin D AND low Magnesium
1.1 X if low vitamin D AND High Magnesium
Note: Most people have both low Vitamin D and low Magnesium
See also VitaminDWiki
1.9 X more likely to die if very low vitamin D – June 2014
Dr. Grant on vitamin D and mortality in VitaminDWiki
Low vitamin D status increases the risk of death. Magnesium plays an essential role in vitamin D metabolism and low magnesium intake may predispose to vitamin D deficiency and potentiate the health problems. We investigated whether magnesium intake modifies the serum 25(OH)D3 concentration and its associations with mortality in middle-aged and older men. We included 1892 men aged 42–60 years without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline in 1984–1989 from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Serum 25(OH)D3 was measured with the high-performance liquid chromatography using coulometric electrode array detection. Magnesium intake was assessed with 4-day food recording. Deaths were ascertained by a computer linkage to the national cause of death register. Deaths due accidents and suicides were excluded. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the associations. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death in the lowest (<32.1 nmol/L) versus the highest (>49.4 nmol/L) serum 25(OH)D3 tertile was 1.31 (95 % CI 1.07–1.60, Ptrend = 0.01). Stratified by the magnesium intake, the higher risk was observed only in the lower magnesium intake median (<414 mg/day); HR = 1.60 (95 % CI 1.19–2.13, Ptrend = 0.002) in the lowest versus the highest 25(OH)D3 tertile, whereas the corresponding HR = 1.07, 95 % CI 0.75–1.36, Ptrend = 0.63) in the higher magnesium intake median, P for interaction = 0.08. In this cohort of middle-aged and older men low serum 25(OH)D3 concentration was associated with increased risk of death mainly in those with lower magnesium intake.
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