The effect of vitamin D supplementation on mortality and Intensive Care Unit admission of COVID-19 patients. A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2021 Dec 29;e3517. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.3517
Nikolaos Tentolouris 1, Georgia Samakidou 1, Ioanna Eleftheriadou 1, Anastasios Tentolouris 1, Edward B Jude 2
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Aims: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on mortality and admission to intensive care unit (ICU) of COVID-19 patients.
Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Web of Science and medRxiv with terms relative to vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 was conducted on March, 26th , 2021. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software was used for the quantitative assessment of data and random-effects model was applied. To investigate the association between the dose of vitamin D and the outcomes of interest, meta-regression analysis was performed.
Results: 2,078 patients from 9 studies with data on mortality were included (583 received vitamin D supplementation, while 1,495 did not). 61 (10.46%) individuals in the treated group died, compared to 386 (25.81%) in the non-treated group [odds ratio (OR): 0.597; 95% CI: 0.318-1.121; p=0.109]. 860 patients from 6 studies with data on ICU admission were included (369 received vitamin D supplementation, while 491 did not).
45 (12.19%) individuals in the treated group were admitted to ICU, compared to 129 (26.27%) in the non-treated group (OR: 0.326; 95%CI: 0.149-0.712; p=0.005). No significant linear relationship between vitamin D dose and log OR of mortality or log OR of ICU admission was observed.
Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicates a beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation on ICU admission, but not on mortality, of COVID-19 patients. Further research is urgently needed to understand the benefit of vitamin D in Covid-19.
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- Severe COVID 2.6 X less likely if supplement with Vitamin D – 26th meta-analysis - July 2022
- COVID test positive is about half as likely if have Vitamin D – 24th meta-analysis - Jan 2022
- Small amounts of Vitamin D reduce Influenza risk by 22 percent (loading dose is far better) – meta-analysis Jan 2022
- Vitamin D fights COVID (54 studies of 1,400,000 people) – 23rd meta-analysis - Dec 2021
- COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D (reduce ICU by 3X) - 22nd meta-analysis - Dec 29, 2021
- COVID-19 death increased 2X if low Vitamin D (less than 10 to less than 30 ng) – 21st meta-analysis Dec 2021
- COVID-19 risk reduced by vitamin D supplementation – umbrella review of 7 meta-analysis – Oct 2021
- COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D (example: ICU reduced by 5X) – 20th meta-analysis Oct 13, 2021
- Severe COVID-19 2.5 X more likely if low vitamin D (23 studies) – 19th meta-analysis Oct 2021
- COVID-19 mortality extrapolates to zero at 50 ng of vitamin D – 18th Meta-analysis Sept 2021
- COVID-19 death 1.6 X more likely if low vitamin D (24 studies) – 17th meta-analysis Aug 2021
- Severe COVID-19 5X more likely if low vitamin D (23 studies) – 16th meta-analysis July 2021
- Severe COVID-19 3.5 more likely if low vitamin D (30 studies) – meta-analysis July 2021
- COVID-19 patients who had supplemented with Vitamin D were 3X less likely to enter ICU – June 2021
- Low Calcium associated with severe COVID-19 – several studies
- COVID-19 mortality 3X more likely if low vitamin D (999,179 people) – meta-analysis March 29, 2021
- COVID-19 was 2.6X more severe if very low Vitamin D (43 studies) – meta-analysis March 26, 2021
- Low Vitamin D associated with 2.7X more severe COVID-19 – 12th MA March 5, 2021
- Vitamin D supplementation fights COVID-19 – 11th meta-analysis Jan 24, 2021
- 3.7 X less likely to die of COVID-19 if supplemented with Vitamin D - meta-analysis Jan 5, 2021
- Less likely to test positive for COVID-19 if higher Vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 6, 2021
- Vitamin D reduces COVID-19 by 80 percent - anonymous meta-analysis - Jan 5, 2021
- COVID-19 1.7X more likely to be severe if low Vitamin D - meta-analysis Oct 2020
- Low Vitamin D associated 1.8X increased risk of COVID-19 death in hospital – meta-analysis Nov 4, 2020
- Acute viral respiratory infections (RTI) reduced by Vitamin D - 20 reviews - Aug 2020
- Prudent to consider that Vitamin D has a role in COVID-19 – meta-analysis – Aug 7, 2020
- Risk of enveloped virus infection is increased 50 percent if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis Dec 2018
- Hepatitis B patients have 2 ng lower level of Vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2019
- Influenza Vaccination not benefited by lowish levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018