The role of vitamin D deficiency on the Covid-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Epidemiol Health. 2021 Sep 23;e2021074. doi: 10.4178/epih.e2021074
Mehmet Onur Kaya 1, Esra Pamukçu 1, Burkay Yakar 1
Mortality - not quite significant
Objectives: Although vaccination has started, it seems that Covid-19 will continue to threaten public health for a long time. Therefore, in addition to the vaccine, the use of supplements to support the immune system may also be important. The main purpose of this study is to indicate the possible effect of low serum vitamin D (25(OH)D<20 ng/mL or 50nmol/L) on the Covid-19 infection and outcomes.
Methods: To accomplish our objectives, we searched on Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases without any language restrictions for articles between 01.01.2020 and 15.12.2020. We performed three meta-analyses to combine the OR values by paying attention to laboratory measurement units for vitamin D and the measured serum 25(OH)D level.
Results: 23 eligible studies involving the relationship between vitamin D and Covid-19 infection/outcomes were identified (n=206861). We applied three meta-analyses called D-CIMA, D-CSMA and D-CMMA for Covid-19 infection, severity, and mortality, respectively. According to obtained result from D-CIMA, one which has low serum vitamin D are
- 1.64 times (95%CI=[1.32-2.04],p<0.001) more likely to get Covid-19 infection
In D-CSMA, we found that people with the serum 25(OH)D level below 20ng/mL or 50nmol/L have
- 2.58 times (95%CI=[1.28-5.19],p=0.008) more likely to risk having severe Covid-19.
We obtained from D-CMMA that low vitamin D level has no effect on Covid-19 mortality (OR=2.42 95%CI=[0.73-8.04],p=0.148).
Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of Covid-19 infection and the potential for the severity of the disease. Therefore, vitamin D supplements should be added to prevention and treatment protocols for Covid-19 disease.
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- COVID test positive is about half as likely if have Vitamin D – 24th meta-analysis - Jan 2022
- Small amounts of Vitamin D reduce Influenza risk by 22 percent (loading dose is far better) – meta-analysis Jan 2022
- Vitamin D fights COVID (54 studies of 1,400,000 people) – 23rd meta-analysis - Dec 2021
- COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D (reduce ICU by 3X) - 22nd meta-analysis - Dec 29, 2021
- COVID-19 death increased 2X if low Vitamin D (less than 10 to less than 30 ng) – 21st meta-analysis Dec 2021
- COVID-19 risk reduced by vitamin D supplementation – umbrella review of 7 meta-analysis – Oct 2021
- COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D (example: ICU reduced by 5X) – 20th meta-analysis Oct 13, 2021
- Severe COVID-19 2.5 X more likely if low vitamin D (23 studies) – 19th meta-analysis Oct 2021
- COVID-19 mortality extrapolates to zero at 50 ng of vitamin D – 18th Meta-analysis Sept 2021
- COVID-19 death 1.6 X more likely if low vitamin D (24 studies) – 17th meta-analysis Aug 2021
- Severe COVID-19 5X more likely if low vitamin D (23 studies) – 16th meta-analysis July 2021
- Severe COVID-19 3.5 more likely if low vitamin D (30 studies) – meta-analysis July 2021
- COVID-19 patients who had supplemented with Vitamin D were 3X less likely to enter ICU – June 2021
- Low Calcium associated with severe COVID-19 – several studies
- COVID-19 mortality 3X more likely if low vitamin D (999,179 people) – meta-analysis March 29, 2021
- COVID-19 was 2.6X more severe if very low Vitamin D (43 studies) – meta-analysis March 26, 2021
- Low Vitamin D associated with 2.7X more severe COVID-19 – 12th MA March 5, 2021
- Vitamin D supplementation fights COVID-19 – 11th meta-analysis Jan 24, 2021
- 3.7 X less likely to die of COVID-19 if supplemented with Vitamin D - meta-analysis Jan 5, 2021
- Less likely to test positive for COVID-19 if higher Vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 6, 2021
- Vitamin D reduces COVID-19 by 80 percent - anonymous meta-analysis - Jan 5, 2021
- COVID-19 1.7X more likely to be severe if low Vitamin D - meta-analysis Oct 2020
- Low Vitamin D associated 1.8X increased risk of COVID-19 death in hospital – meta-analysis Nov 4, 2020
- Acute viral respiratory infections (RTI) reduced by Vitamin D - 20 reviews - Aug 2020
- Prudent to consider that Vitamin D has a role in COVID-19 – meta-analysis – Aug 7, 2020
- Risk of enveloped virus infection is increased 50 percent if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis Dec 2018
- Hepatitis B patients have 2 ng lower level of Vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2019
- Influenza Vaccination not benefited by lowish levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018
- As of June 14, 2022, the VitaminDWiki page had: 34 trials, 11 trial results, 36 meta-analyses and reviews, 69 observations, 38 recommendations, 55 associations, 89 speculations, 58 videos, 45 Mortality studies see related: Governments, HealthProblems, Hospitals, Dark Skins, 26 risk factors are ALL associated with low Vit D, Recent Virus pages Fight COVID-19 with 50K Vit D weekly Vaccines Take lots of Vitamin D at first signs of COVID COVID Clinical Trials (06/22) using Vit D: 114, Vit D & Zinc: 26, Calcidiol: 26
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