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Vitamin D and it’s related genes regulate the immune system – Aug 2023


A review of the critical role of vitamin D axis on the immune system - Aug 2023

Exp Mol Pathol. 2023 Aug 10;104866. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2023.104866   PDF not available
Gholamreza Daryabor 1, Nasser Gholijani 1, Fatemeh Rezaei Kahmini 2

  • 1 Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
  • 2 Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Fateme.rezaei at modares.ac.ir.


In recent years, the physiological and molecular functions of vitamin D (Vit-D) have been deeply investigated. At first, Vit-D was considered a regulator of mineral and skeletal homeostasis. However, due to the extensive-expression pattern of Vit-D receptor (VDR) in almost every non-skeletal cell, Vit-D is considered mainly a multifunctional agent with broad effects on various tissues, notably the immune system.
The expression of VDR in immune cells such as dendritic cells, monocyte/macrophage, neutrophils, B cells and T cells has been well demonstrated. Besides, such immune cells are capable of metabolizing the active form of Vit-D which means that it can module the immune system in both paracrine and autocrine manners.
Vit-D binding protein (DBP), that regulates the levels and homeostasis of Vit-D, is another key molecule capable of modulating the immune system. Recent studies indicate that dysregulation of Vit-D axis, variations in the DBP and VDR genes, and Vit-D levels might be risk factors for the development of autoimmune disease.
Here, the current evidence regarding the role of Vit-D axis on the immune system, as well as its role in the development of autoimmune disease will be clarified. Further insight will be given to those studies that investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of DBP and VDR genes with autoimmune disease susceptibility.


A review of the role of vitamin d in autoimmunity - Aug 2023

International Journal of Nutrology , Volume 16 (3) – Aug 11, 2023
Finamor, Danilo Chiaradia; Bearzi, Cristiane Fadel; Marim, Giovana; Durante, Fausto Rohnelt

Introduction: The main function of vitamin D is to increase the intestinal absorption of calcium, participating in the stimulation of active transport of this ion in enterocytes. Extra-renal hydroxylation of vitamin D also occurs, originating the vitamin that would act in an autocrine and paracrine manner, with functions of inhibiting cell proliferation, promoting cell differentiation, and immune regulation.

Objective: It was to review the scientific literature on the role of vitamin D in autoimmunity. Methods: A search was carried out on scientific articles centered on the proposed theme: “Role of vitamin D in autoimmunity”. Several search engines that carried scientific information in the health area were used to carry out this study, such as Google Scholar and the Medical Publications database (PubMed), and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO). In collecting the information, the descriptors used to carry out this research were: vitamin D; vitamin D in preventing diseases; vitamin D and autoimmune diseases; vitamin D; autoimmune diseases. The inclusion criteria used in this study were publications of scientific articles available in full and with free electronic access, limited to a period between 2011 and 2022, and selected articles in Portuguese and English.

Results and Conclusion: Based on this methodology, it was possible to analyze a population of 58 articles that were selected for the study and constituted the sample used in this review. Several studies point to the effects of vitamin D not related to calcium metabolism, such as antineoplastic activity (particularly concerning breast, colon, and prostate cancers, and lymphoproliferative diseases), antihypertensive and immunomodulatory. Vitamin D deficiency and its use for treatment have been described in various autoimmune diseases such as

  • rheumatoid arthritis,
  • multiple sclerosis,
  • lupus,
  • inflammatory bowel disease,
  • myasthenia gravis,
  • scleroderma,
  • alopecia areata,
  • psoriasis,
  • vitiligo,
  • autoimmune hepatitis,
  • type 1 diabetes mellitus,
  • autoimmune thyroiditis, etc.

The effects of vitamin D on the immune system are related to the tolerance of self-antigens, exerting an inhibitory effect on the Th1 and Th17 type lymphocyte pattern, and a promoting effect on the expression of the Th2 and Treg pattern through the action of vitamin D in all cells of the system through the vitamin D receptor.

More studies are needed to establish safe and effective doses in the management of these properties of vitamin D.
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VitaminDWiki – Autoimmune category contains

See also web: consensus that ~50 diseases are autoimmune, ~50 more are suspected:


VitaminDWiki – Vitamin D Receptor is associated in over 58 autoimmune studies


VitaminDWiki – Immunity category contains

258 items in Immunity category

    see also

Virus category listing has 1325 items along with related searches

Overview Influenza and vitamin D
Vitamin D helps both the innate and adaptive immune systems fight COVID-19 – Jan 2022
Vitamin D aids the clearing out of old cells (autophagy) – many studies
600,000 IU of Vitamin D (total) allowed previously weak immune systems to fight off a virus antigen - Nov 2020
Search for treg OR "t-cell" in VitaminDWiki 1440 items as of Jan 2020
141 VitaminDWiki pages contained "infection" in title (June 2021)
Search VitaminDWik for BACTERIA in title 25 items as of Aug 2019
Vitamin D and the Immune System – chapter Aug 2019
7X less risk of influenza if Vitamin D levels higher than 30 ng – Oct 2017
Common cold prevented and treated by Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea – review April 2018
Vitamin D improves T Cell immunity – RCT Feb 2016
Immune system - great 11-minute animated video - Aug 2021
   Only the brain is more complex, nothing about Vitamin D

18 titles in VitaminDWiki contained INNATE or ADAPTIVE as of Jan 2023
Increasing publications on vitamin D and Infection
Image

46 studies are in both Immunity and Virus categories

VitaminDWiki – Genetics category contains

328 articles in the Genetics category

see also

Vitamin D blood test misses a lot
in Visio for 2023

  • Vitamin D from coming from tissues (vs blood) was speculated to be 50% in 2014, and by 2017 was speculated to be 90%
  • Note: Good blood test results (> 40 ng) does not mean that a good amount of Vitamin D actually gets to cells
  • A Vitamin D test in cells rather than blood was feasible (2017 personal communication)
  •    Commercially available 2019
    • However, test results would vary in each tissue due to multiple genes
  • Good clues that Vitamin D is being restricted from getting to the cells
    1) A vitamin D-related health problem runs in the family
    2) Slightly increasing Vitamin D shows benefits (even if conventional Vitamin D test shows an increase)
    3) Vitamin D Receptor test (<$30) scores are difficult to understand in 2016
    • easier to understand the VDR 23andMe test results analyzed by FoundMyFitness in 2018

    4) Back Pain

VitaminDWiki - 12 studies in both categories Immunity and Vitamin D Receptor

This list is automatically updated


VitaminDWiki - 19 studies in both categories Autoimmune and Vitamin D Receptor

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