In recent decades many things have happened
- Vitamin D levels have decreased 35 reasons
- Omega-3 levels have decreased
- Omega-6 levels (which block Omega-3) have increased
Premise is based on the following
- Typical Pregnancy Now 39 Weeks, Not 40
- Omega-3 restores weeks of pregnancy – perhaps even add before gestation – Sept 2016
- Omega-3 restored 2 days to pregnancies - RCT April 2019
- Preterm birth rate reduced 57 % by Vitamin D
- 39 week pregnancies for Blacks and Asians (who have lower vitamin D levels), 40 for Whites – 2003
- 40 Reasons To Give Your Baby 40+ Weeks Of Pregnancy
- See also VitaminDWiki
- WebMD – March of Dimes 2006
“The most common length of a pregnancy in the U.S. is a week shorter than it was just over a decade ago, dropping from 40 weeks to 39 weeks, according to a new analysis from the March of Dimes”
Possible reasons postulated includes better fetal monitoring, obesity, and maternal age
No mention of increased Omega-6 which blocks Omega-3
A balance of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids is important in pregnancy
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism, Vol 5, Sept 2016, Pages 23–33, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnim.2016.04.008
Olatunji Anthony Akerele, Sukhinder Kaur Cheema,
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- N-3 PUFA improves maternal and neonatal health, and increases gestation length.
- N-3 PUFA inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines that are vital at early and late gestation.
- Cytokine profile in the uterus during pregnancy may affect pregnancy establishment and outcomes.
- Effects of n-3 PUFA on different stages of pregnancy needs to be established.
Emerging evidence suggests that omega (n)-3 PUFA and their metabolites improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes by modifying gestation length, and reducing the recurrence of pre-term delivery. N-3 PUFA has been associated with prolonged gestation and increased birth dimensions such as birth weight and head circumference. However, mothers giving birth to larger babies are at an increased risk of having dysfunctional labour, genital tract laceration, and delivery via caesarean section. Likewise, high infant weight at birth has been linked to several metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in the offspring. Prolonged gestation also leads to reduced placental function which has been implicated in fetal distress, and perinatal death. Till date, the mechanism through which high n-3 PUFA intake during pregnancy increases gestation length and birth weight is vaguely understood. Early and later stages of pregnancy is characterised by increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are required for pregnancy establishment and labour regulation respectively. Conversely, mid-stage of pregnancy requires anti-inflammatory cytokines necessary for uterine quiescence, pregnancy maintenance and optimal fetal growth. Apparently, changes in the profiles of local cytokines in the uterus during different stages of pregnancy have a profound effect on pregnancy progression. This review focuses on the intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFA during pregnancy and the impact it has on gestation length and infant weight at birth, with a particular emphasis on the expression of inflammatory cytokines required for timely pregnancy establishment (embryo reception and implantation) and labour induction. It is concluded that an appropriate dose of n-3 and n-6 PUFA needs to be established during different stages of pregnancy.
Clipped from PDF
Women supplemented with high n-3 PUFA had their gestation
length extended by 6 days  and 8.3 days longer in high risk pregnancies 
 Smuts CM, Huang M, Mundy D, Plasse T, Major S, Carlson SE. A randomized
trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the third trimester of
pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 2003;101:469e79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02585-1.
 Imhoff-Kunsch B. WHOjMarine Oil Supplementation in Pregnancy and
Maternal and Neonatal Health Outcomes. 2011. http://www.who.int/elena/titles/commentary/fish_oil_pregnancy/en/.
Clipped from PDF
Of keen interest in the intervention studies is the observation
that n-3 PUFA treatment were generally administered after the
pregnancy had been established (Table 2). Data from observational
studies, where mothers consumed high amount of n-3 PUFA prior to conception,
revealed a significantly higher infant weight at birth.
Corrected average birth weight among Faroese woman was
3610 ± 603 g, and the frequency of having new born infants heavier
than 4.5 kg was 3 (three) times higher than Denmark where n-3
PUFA consumption was very low . It can therefore be argued
that n-3 PUFA supplementation at the early stage of pregnancy may
have a significant influence on gestation length and other pregnancy outcomes;
perhaps by regulating pregnancy establishment activities, leading to gestation
length prolongation and consequently high infant weight at birth.
Fish Oil Supplementation in Pregnancy Increases Gestational Age, Size for Gestational Age, and Birth Weight in Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
J Nutr. 2019 Apr 1;149(4):628-634. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy204.
Vinding RK1,2, Stokholm J1,2, Sevelsted A1, Chawes BL1, Bønnelykke K1, Barman M3,4, Jacobsson B4,5, Bisgaard H1.
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials have reported that supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in pregnancy can prolong pregnancy and thereby increase birth weight.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relations of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy with duration of pregnancy, birth weight, and size for gestational age (GA).
METHODS: This was a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in 736 pregnant women and their offspring, from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010cohort. They were recruited between weeks 22 and 26 in pregnancy and randomly assigned to either of 2.4 g n-3 LCPUFA or control (olive oil) daily until 1 wk after birth. Exclusion criteria were endocrine, cardiovascular, or nephrologic disorders and vitamin D supplementation intake >600 IU/d. In this study we analyzed secondary outcomes, and further excluded twin pregnancies and extrauterine death. The primary outcome for the trial was persistent wheeze or asthma.
RESULTS: The random assignment ran between 2008 and 2010. Six hundred and ninety-nine mother-infant pairs were included in the analysis. n-3 LCPUFA compared with control was associated with a 2-d prolongation of pregnancy [median (IQR): 282 (275-288) d compared with 280 (273-286) d, P = 0.02], a 97-g higher birth weight (mean ± SD: 3601 ± 534 g compared with 3504 ± 528 g, P = 0.02), and an increased size for GA according to the Norwegian population-based growth curves-Skjærven (mean ± SD: 49.9 ± 28.3 percentiles compared with 44.5 ± 27.6 percentiles, P = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Supplementing pregnant women with n-3 LCPUFAs during the third trimester is associated with prolonged gestation and increased size for GA, leading to a higher birth weight in this randomized controlled trial. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00798226.
- “The cohort comprised 122 415 nulliparous women with singleton live fetuses at the time of spontaneous labour, giving birth in the former North West Thames Health Region, London, UK.”
Free PDF online
#4. Generally speaking, more time in the womb equals less time in hospital.
#5. Brain development accelerates during the last five weeks of pregnancy
#14: Babies born at 40 weeks score better on standardised tests than babies born at 38 weeks.
- Overview: Omega-3 many benefits include helping vitamin D
- Vitamin D once during pregnancy reduced infant health care costs (300 times ROI) – RCT Dec 2015
- Premature birth and infant mortality worse if dark skin (low vitamin D) - 2015
- Omega 3 increases vitamin D in the blood – many studies nice synergism with Vitamin D
- Vitamin D and omega-3 are the only supplements which show benefit in meta-analysis – Jan 2012
- Vitamin D use increased 3.7 X, Omega-3 increased 9 X (US 1999-2012) – JAMA Oct 2016
Omega-3 and Pregnancy (items in both categories)
- Stillbirth reduced by Vitamin D, Zinc, Omega-3 - several studies
- Preterm birth decreased by Omege-3, etc. - many studies
- Preterm birth reduction by nutrients - Vitamin D is the best, Omega-3 is next best – May 2022
- Omega-3 improves pregnancies – Meta-analysis May 2022
- Omega-3 supplementation reduced preterm birth rate by 4X – RCT July 2020
- Conception 1.5 X more likely if taking any amount of Omega-3 – Feb 2022
- Pre-term birth rate cut in half with 1000 milligrams of Omega-3 (if initially low) – RCT May 2021
- Omega-3 recommended in Australia during pregnancy - April 2021
- Pregnancy recommendations – huge differences in Vitamin D, Mg, iron, Iodine, DHA, etc – April 2021
- Seafood (Omega-3) during pregnancy increased childhood IQ by 8 points – review Dec 2019
- Pregnant women in Australia to take Omega-3 when told of reduction in preterm births – Dec 2019
- Fat-soluble vitamins critical for conception, pregnancy and breast feeding (pigs) – Sept 2019
- Preterm Births reduced by Omega-3, Zinc, and Vitamin D – Aug 2019
- Depression after childbirth 5 X less likely if good Omega-3 index – April 2019
- Infant Problem-Solving Skills Linked to Mother’s DHA Omega-3 Level During Pregnancy – April 2019
- Omega-3 during pregnancy and breastfeeding is recommended – May 2019
- Preterm Births decreased by Omega-3 (analysis of 184 countries) – April 2019
- Preterm Births - promising preventions – anti-oxidants, Vitamin D, Omega-3, Zinc, etc. – Jan 2019
- Preterm birth might be prevented by Vitamin D, Omega-3, etc. (International survey) – Jan 2019
- Omega-3 index of 5 greatly decreases the risk of an early preterm birth – Dec 2018
- Omega-3 added during pregnancy helps in many ways – Cochrane Review of RCTs Nov 2018
- Omega-3 helps conception as well as pregnancy – many studies
- More pregnancies and fewer abortions when Omega-3 was added (cows in this case) July 2018
- PCOS treated by a combination of Vitamin D and Omega-3 – RCT Oct 2018
- Omega-3 – fewer than 5 percent of adult women get the RDA – April 2018
- Omega-3, Vitamin D, Folic acid etc. during pregnancy and subsequent mental illness of child – March 2018
- Supplementation while pregnant and psychotic – 20 percent Omega-3, 6 percent Vitamin D – June 2016
- Importance of Vitamin D and fish rarely mentioned during midwife-led prenatal booking visits – July 2017
- Preterm birth rate of pregnant smokers cut in half if take Omega-3 – RCT May 2017
- Gestational diabetes treated by Vitamin D plus Omega-3 – RCT Feb 2017
- Asthma reduced 31 percent when Omega-3 taken during pregnancy – RCT Dec 2016
- Preterm births strongly related to Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor, Iodine, Omega-3, etc
- Typical pregnancy is now 39 weeks – Omega-3 and Vitamin D might restore it to full 40 weeks
- Omega-3 supplementation during pregnancy reduce early preterm births (save 1500 USD per child) – Aug 2016
- Rancid Omega-3 increased the odds of newborn mortality by 13 times (rats) – July 2016
- Preterm birth extended by 2 weeks with Omega-3 – Meta-analysis Nov 2015
- Stillbirth rate typically 1 in 200, perhaps only 1 in 800 with Omega-3
- Omega-3 helps pregnancy in many ways: preterm 26 percent less likely etc – review July 2012
- Pregnancy and infants healthier with Omega-3 supplementation - many studies
- Vitamin D, DHA, Folic, Iodine benefits during pregnancy – July 2012
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary
|0. Chance of not conceiving||3.4 times||Observe|
|1. Miscarriage||2.5 times||Observe|
|2. Pre-eclampsia||3.6 times||RCT|
|3. Gestational Diabetes||3 times||RCT|
|4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality||3.5 times||Observe|
|5. Premature birth||2 times||RCT|
|6. C-section - unplanned||1.6 times||Observe|
|Stillbirth - OMEGA-3||4 times||RCT - Omega-3|
|7. Depression AFTER pregnancy||1.4 times||RCT|
|8. Small for Gestational Age||1.6 times||meta-analysis|
|9. Infant height, weight, head size |
within normal limits
|10. Childhood Wheezing||1.3 times||RCT|
|11. Additional child is Autistic||4 times||Intervention|
|12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis||1.9 times||Observe|
|13. Preeclampsia in young adult||3.5 times||RCT|
|14. Good motor skills @ age 3||1.4 times||Observe|
|15. Childhood Mite allergy||5 times||RCT|
|16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits||2.5 times||RCT|
RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
- Also: Omega-3 Reduces Stillbirth 3 times RCT*