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Typical pregnancy is now 39 weeks – Omega-3 and Vitamin D might restore it to full 40 weeks

In recent decades many things have happened

  • Vitamin D levels have decreased 35 reasons
  • Omega-3 levels have decreased
  • Omega-6 levels (which block Omega-3) have increased

Typical Pregnancy Now 39 Weeks, Not 40

  • WebMD – March of Dimes 2006
    “The most common length of a pregnancy in the U.S. is a week shorter than it was just over a decade ago, dropping from 40 weeks to 39 weeks, according to a new analysis from the March of Dimes”
    Possible reasons postulated includes better fetal monitoring, obesity, and maternal age
    No mention of increased Omega-6 which blocks Omega-3

Omega-3 restores weeks of pregnancy – perhaps even add before gestation – Sept 2016

A balance of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids is important in pregnancy
Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism, Vol 5, Sept 2016, Pages 23–33, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnim.2016.04.008
Olatunji Anthony Akerele, Sukhinder Kaur Cheema,
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


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Highlights

  • N-3 PUFA improves maternal and neonatal health, and increases gestation length.
  • N-3 PUFA inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines that are vital at early and late gestation.
  • Cytokine profile in the uterus during pregnancy may affect pregnancy establishment and outcomes.
  • Effects of n-3 PUFA on different stages of pregnancy needs to be established.

Emerging evidence suggests that omega (n)-3 PUFA and their metabolites improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes by modifying gestation length, and reducing the recurrence of pre-term delivery. N-3 PUFA has been associated with prolonged gestation and increased birth dimensions such as birth weight and head circumference. However, mothers giving birth to larger babies are at an increased risk of having dysfunctional labour, genital tract laceration, and delivery via caesarean section. Likewise, high infant weight at birth has been linked to several metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in the offspring. Prolonged gestation also leads to reduced placental function which has been implicated in fetal distress, and perinatal death. Till date, the mechanism through which high n-3 PUFA intake during pregnancy increases gestation length and birth weight is vaguely understood. Early and later stages of pregnancy is characterised by increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are required for pregnancy establishment and labour regulation respectively. Conversely, mid-stage of pregnancy requires anti-inflammatory cytokines necessary for uterine quiescence, pregnancy maintenance and optimal fetal growth. Apparently, changes in the profiles of local cytokines in the uterus during different stages of pregnancy have a profound effect on pregnancy progression. This review focuses on the intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFA during pregnancy and the impact it has on gestation length and infant weight at birth, with a particular emphasis on the expression of inflammatory cytokines required for timely pregnancy establishment (embryo reception and implantation) and labour induction. It is concluded that an appropriate dose of n-3 and n-6 PUFA needs to be established during different stages of pregnancy.

Clipped from PDF
Women supplemented with high n-3 PUFA had their gestation
length extended by 6 days [34] and 8.3 days longer in high risk pregnancies [35]
[34] Smuts CM, Huang M, Mundy D, Plasse T, Major S, Carlson SE. A randomized
trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during the third trimester of
pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 2003;101:469e79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02585-1.
[35] Imhoff-Kunsch B. WHOjMarine Oil Supplementation in Pregnancy and
Maternal and Neonatal Health Outcomes. 2011. http://www.who.int/elena/titles/commentary/fish_oil_pregnancy/en/.
Clipped from PDF
Of keen interest in the intervention studies is the observation
that n-3 PUFA treatment were generally administered after the
pregnancy had been established (Table 2). Data from observational
studies, where mothers consumed high amount of n-3 PUFA prior to conception,
revealed a significantly higher infant weight at birth.
Corrected average birth weight among Faroese woman was
3610 ± 603 g, and the frequency of having new born infants heavier
than 4.5 kg was 3 (three) times higher than Denmark where n-3
PUFA consumption was very low [73]. It can therefore be argued
that n-3 PUFA supplementation at the early stage of pregnancy may
have a significant influence on gestation length and other pregnancy outcomes;
perhaps by regulating pregnancy establishment activities, leading to gestation
length prolongation and consequently high infant weight at birth.


Omega-3 restored 2 days to pregnancies - RCT April 2019

Fish Oil Supplementation in Pregnancy Increases Gestational Age, Size for Gestational Age, and Birth Weight in Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
J Nutr. 2019 Apr 1;149(4):628-634. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy204.
Vinding RK1,2, Stokholm J1,2, Sevelsted A1, Chawes BL1, Bønnelykke K1, Barman M3,4, Jacobsson B4,5, Bisgaard H1.

BACKGROUND: Randomized trials have reported that supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in pregnancy can prolong pregnancy and thereby increase birth weight.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relations of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnancy with duration of pregnancy, birth weight, and size for gestational age (GA).

METHODS: This was a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in 736 pregnant women and their offspring, from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010cohort. They were recruited between weeks 22 and 26 in pregnancy and randomly assigned to either of 2.4 g n-3 LCPUFA or control (olive oil) daily until 1 wk after birth. Exclusion criteria were endocrine, cardiovascular, or nephrologic disorders and vitamin D supplementation intake >600 IU/d. In this study we analyzed secondary outcomes, and further excluded twin pregnancies and extrauterine death. The primary outcome for the trial was persistent wheeze or asthma.

RESULTS: The random assignment ran between 2008 and 2010. Six hundred and ninety-nine mother-infant pairs were included in the analysis. n-3 LCPUFA compared with control was associated with a 2-d prolongation of pregnancy [median (IQR): 282 (275-288) d compared with 280 (273-286) d, P = 0.02], a 97-g higher birth weight (mean ± SD: 3601 ± 534 g compared with 3504 ± 528 g, P = 0.02), and an increased size for GA according to the Norwegian population-based growth curves-Skjærven (mean ± SD: 49.9 ± 28.3 percentiles compared with 44.5 ± 27.6 percentiles, P = 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Supplementing pregnant women with n-3 LCPUFAs during the third trimester is associated with prolonged gestation and increased size for GA, leading to a higher birth weight in this randomized controlled trial. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00798226.


Preterm birth rate reduced 57 % by Vitamin D

Preterm birth rate reduced 57 percent by Vitamin D – Nov 2015


39 week pregnancies for Blacks and Asians (who have lower vitamin D levels), 40 for Whites – 2003

Does gestation vary by ethnic group? A London-based study of over 122 000 pregnancies with spontaneous onset of labour

  • “The cohort comprised 122 415 nulliparous women with singleton live fetuses at the time of spontaneous labour, giving birth in the former North West Thames Health Region, London, UK.”
    Free PDF online

40 Reasons To Give Your Baby 40+ Weeks Of Pregnancy

  • bellybelly.com
    #4. Generally speaking, more time in the womb equals less time in hospital.
    #5. Brain development accelerates during the last five weeks of pregnancy
    #14: Babies born at 40 weeks score better on standardised tests than babies born at 38 weeks.

See also VitaminDWiki

Omega-3 and Pregnancy (items in both categories)

Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary

Problem
ReducesEvidence
0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
RCT
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
7184 Omega-3 before and during pregnancy.jpg admin 16 Oct, 2016 23:02 56.98 Kb 586
7183 Omega-3 Length and weight.jpg admin 16 Oct, 2016 23:02 99.32 Kb 492
7182 Omega-3 PTB.jpg admin 16 Oct, 2016 23:01 68.92 Kb 456
7181 Omegas and Pregnancy.pdf PDF 2016 admin 16 Oct, 2016 23:01 894.72 Kb 329
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