Loading...
 
Translate Register Log In Login with facebookLogin and Register

Omega-3 – fewer than 5 percent of adult women get the RDA – April 2018

Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: An Analysis of NHANES 2001–2014

Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 416; doi:10.3390/nu10040416, Published: 28 March 2018
Zhiying Zhang 1, jazhang at nbty.com, Victor L. Fulgoni III 2, Penny M. Kris-Etherton 3 and Susan Hazels Mitmesser 1 Nutrition and Scientific Affairs, The Nature’s Bounty Co., Ronkonkoma, NY 11779, USA

VitaminDWiki

This study failed to incorporate the decreases of Omega-3 due to faming and cooking

Less Omega-3 in farmed fish

Omega-3 reduction when cooked at high temperature

Much less Omega-3 actually consumed than reported by this study

  • Since 60% of the fish now consumed are farmed fish, and that much of it is cooked at high temperature
    I suspect that >98% of the women now fail to actually consume the Omega-3 RDA
  • Note: There are huge differences in effectiveness between different Omega-3 supplements
  • Not clear about canned albacore tuna
    • One study found Albacore tuna has 10X more Omega-3 than regular canneed tuna
    • Another study found that canned tuna had no Omega-3
    • I switched to Albacore tuna about 20 years ago - Henry Lahore, founder of VitaminDWiki

Vitamin D and Omega-3 category starts with

315 Omega-3 items in category

Omega-3 and Vitamin D separately & together help with Autism, Depression, Cardiovascular, Cognition, Pregnancy, Infant, Obesity, Mortality, Breast Cancer, Smoking, Sleep, Stroke, Surgery, Longevity, Trauma, Inflammation, MS, etc
   See also - Overview: Omega-3 many benefits include helping vitamin D


Items in both categories Omega-3 and Pregnancy:


See also VitaminDWiki


Recommendations for women by many countries and organizations 2017

US 250 mg each of EPA and DHA
Japan 1800 mg TOTAL (about 3X of US)

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Table 1. EPA and DHA worldwide recommendations for pregnant and lactating women

Image

Background: The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant and lactating women should consume 8–12 oz. per week of seafood.

Methods: We determined the usual intakes, percentage not meeting recommendations, and trends in EPA and DHA intakes among childbearing-age and pregnant women (15–44 years of age) using the NHANES cycles 2001–2002 through 2013–2014.

Results: For the childbearing-age women, the mean usual intake of seafood was 0.44 ± 0.02 oz. equivalent per day and 100% of the population was below the DGA recommendation. Mean usual intakes of EPA, DHA, and combined EPA and DHA from foods and dietary supplements combined were 26.8 ± 1.4, 62.2 ± 1.9, and 88.1 ± 3.0 mg per day, respectively. Over 95% of the sample did not meet the daily intakes of 250 mg EPA and DHA. Similar results were observed for pregnant women. After controlling for covariates, there were slight but significant increases in EPA and DHA intakes from foods and dietary supplements over the 14-year span among childbearing-age (p = 0.005) and pregnant women (p = 0.002).

Conclusions: It was estimated that a majority of U.S. childbearing-age and pregnant women consumed significantly lower amounts of seafood than what the DGA recommends, which subsequently leads to low intakes of EPA and DHA; in addition, dietary supplement use has not eliminated the nutrient shortfall.

References

  1. Leaf, A.; Albert, C.M.; Josephson, M.; Steinhaus, D.; Kluger, J.; Kang, J.X.; Cox, B.; Zhang, H.; Schoenfeld, D. Prevention of fatal arrhythmias in high-risk subjects by fish oil n-3 fatty acid intake. Circulation 2005,112, 2762-2768. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Marchioli, R.; Barzi, F.; Bomba, E.; Chieffo, C.; Di Gregorio, D.; Di Mascio, R.; Franzosi, M.G.; Geraci, E.; Levantesi, G.; Maggioni, A.P.; et al. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: Time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo studio della sopravvivenza nell'infarto miocardico (GISSI)-prevenzione. Circulation 2002,105, 1897-1903. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Witte, A.V.; Kerti, L.; Hermannstadter, H.M.; Fiebach, J.B.; Schreiber, S.J.; Schuchardt, J.P.; Hahn, A.; Floel, A. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults. Cereb. Cortex 2014, 24, 3059-3068. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Lee, L.K.; Shahar, S.; Chin, A.V.; Yusoff, N.A. Docosahexaenoic acid-concentrated fish oil supplementation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): A 12-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology 2013,225, 605-612. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Bhargava, R.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, M.; Mehra, N.; Mishra, A. A randomized controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids in dry eye syndrome. Int. J. Ophthalmol. 2013, 6, 811-816. [PubMed]
  6. Bhargava, R.; Kumar, P. Oral omega-3 fatty acid treatment for dry eye in contact lens wearers. Cornea 2015, 34, 413-420. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Fortin, P.R.; Lew, R.A.; Liang, M.H.; Wright, E.A.; Beckett, L.A.; Chalmers, T.C.; Sperling, R.I. Validation of a meta-analysis: The effects of fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 1995, 48, 1379-1390. [CrossRef]
  8. Miles, E.A.; Calder, P.C. Influence of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune function and a systematic review of their effects on clinical outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis. Br. J. Nutr. 2012,107 (Suppl. 2), S171-S184. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Carlson, S.E.; Colombo, J.; Gajewski, B.J.; Gustafson, K.M.; Mundy, D.; Yeast, J.; Georgieff, M.K.; Markley, L.A.; Kerling, E.H.; Shaddy, D.J. DHA supplementation and pregnancy outcomes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2013, 97, 808-815. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Olsen, S.F.; Secher, N.J. Low consumption of seafood in early pregnancy as a risk factor for preterm delivery: Prospective cohort study. BMJ 2002, 324, 447. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Meyer, B.J.; Onyiaodike, C.C.; Brown, E.A.; Jordan, F.; Murray, H.; Nibbs, R.J.; Sattar, N.; Lyall, H.; Nelson, S.M.; Freeman, D.J. Maternal plasma dha levels increase prior to 29 days post-lh surge in women undergoing frozen embryo transfer: A prospective, observational study of human pregnancy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2016,101,1745-1753. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Clandinin, M.T.; Chappell, J.E.; Leong, S.; Heim, T.; Swyer, P.R.; Chance, G.W. Intrauterine fatty acid accretion rates in human brain: Implications for fatty acid requirements. Early Hum. Dev. 1980, 4,121-129. [CrossRef]
  13. Clandinin, M.T.; Chappell, J.E.; Leong, S.; Heim, T.; Swyer, P.R.; Chance, G.W. Extrauterine fatty acid accretion in infant brain: Implications for fatty acid requirements. Early Hum. Dev. 1980, 4,131-138. [CrossRef]
  14. Martinez, M. Tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids during early human development. J. Pediatr. 1992, 120, S129-S138. [CrossRef]
  15. Moriguchi, T.; Greiner, R.S.; Salem, N., Jr. Behavioral deficits associated with dietary induction of decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid concentration. J. Neurochem. 2000, 75, 2563-2573. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Catalan, J.; Moriguchi, T.; Slotnick, B.; Murthy, M.; Greiner, R.S.; Salem, N., Jr. Cognitive deficits in docosahexaenoic acid-deficient rats. Behav. Neurosci. 2002,116,1022-1031. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Crawford, M.A.; Bloom, M.; Broadhurst, C.L.; Schmidt, W.F.; Cunnane, S.C.; Galli, C.; Gehbremeskel, K.; Linseisen, F.; Lloyd-Smith, J.; Parkington, J. Evidence for the unique function of docosahexaenoic acid during the evolution of the modern hominid brain. Lipids 1999, 34 (Suppl. 1), S39-S47. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Wurtman, R.J. Synapse formation and cognitive brain development: Effect of docosahexaenoic acid and other dietary constituents. Metabolism 2008, 57 (Suppl. 2), S6-S10. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Harbeby, E.; Jouin, M.; Alessandri, J.M.; Lallemand, M.S.; Linard, A.; Lavialle, M.; Huertas, A.; Cunnane, S.C.; Guesnet, P. N-3 PUFA status affects expression of genes involved in neuroenergetics differently in the fronto-parietal cortex compared to the CA1 area of the hippocampus: Effect of rest and neuronal activation in the rat. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 2012, 86, 211-220. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Coti Bertrand, P.; O'Kusky, J.R.; Innis, S.M. Maternal dietary (n-3) fatty acid deficiency alters neurogenesis in the embryonic rat brain. J. Nutr. 2006,136,1570-1575. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Ouellet, M.; Emond, V.; Chen, C.T.; Julien, C.; Bourasset, F.; Oddo, S.; LaFerla, F.; Bazinet, R.P.; Calon, F. Diffusion of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids through the blood-brain barrier: An in situ cerebral perfusion study. Neurochem. Int. 2009, 55, 476-482. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Chen, C.T.; Domenichiello, A.F.; Trepanier, M.O.; Liu, Z.; Masoodi, M.; Bazinet, R.P. The low levels of eicosapentaenoic acid in rat brain phospholipids are maintained via multiple redundant mechanisms. J. Lipid Res. 2013, 54, 2410-2422. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Hussein, N.; Ah-Sing, E.; Wilkinson, P.; Leach, C.; Griffin, B.A.; Millward, D.J. Long-chain conversion of [13C]linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in response to marked changes in their dietary intake in men. J. Lipid Res. 2005, 46, 269-280. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Burdge, G.C.; Calder, P.C. Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human adults. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 2005, 45, 581-597. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Burdge, G.C.; Wootton, S.A. Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in young women. Br. J. Nutr. 2002, 88, 411-420. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients); The National Academies Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2005.
  27. US Department of Health and Human Services; US Department of Agriculture. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 8th ed.; US Dept. of Health and Human Services: Washington, DC, USA, 2015. Available online: https://health.Gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/ (accessed on 25 May 2017).
  28. FDA-EPA Final Fish Consumption Advice. 2017. Available online: https://www.Epa.Gov/fish-tech/2017- epa-fda-advice-about-eating-fish-and-shellfish (accessed on 27 March 2018).
  29. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Seafood & Human Health. Available online: http: //www.Nmfs.Noaa.Gov/aquaculture/faqs/faq_seafood_health.Html (accessed on 27 March 2018).
  30. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition: Report of an Expert Consultation; FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 91; FAO: Rome, Italy, 2010.
  31. Koletzko, B.; Lien, E.; Agostoni, C.; Bohles, H.; Campoy, C.; Cetin, I.; Decsi, T.; Dudenhausen, J.W.; Dupont, C.; Forsyth, S.; et al. The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: Review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations. J. Perinat. Med. 2008, 36,5-14. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Koletzko, B.; Cetin, I.; Brenna, J.T. Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women. Br. J. Nutr. 2007, 98, 873-877. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. EFSA. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. EFSA J. 2010, 8,1461-1566.
  34. Simopoulos, A.P.; Leaf, A.; Salem, N., Jr. Workshop on the essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999, 8, 300-301. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. IOM. Analysis of the balancing of benefits and risks of seafood consumption. In Seafood Choices: Balancing Benefits and Risks; National Academies Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2007; pp. 195-216.
  36. Coletta, J.M.; Bell, S.J.; Roman, A.S. Omega-3 fatty acids and pregnancy. Rev. Obstet. Gynecol. 2010, 3,163-171. [PubMed]
  37. March of Dimes. Vitamins and Other Nutrients during Pregnancy. Available online: http://www.marchofdimes. org/pregnancy/vitamins-and-other-nutrients-during-pregnancy.aspx (accessed on 27 March 2018).
  38. American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 2012, 129, e827-e841.
  39. Papanikolaou, Y.; Brooks, J.; Reider, C.; Fulgoni, V.L., 3rd. U.S. Adults are not meeting recommended levels for fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake: Results of an analysis using observational data from NHANES 2003-2008. Nutr. J. 2014,13, 31. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Richter, C.K.; Bowen, K.J.; Mozaffarian, D.; Kris-Etherton, P.M.; Skulas-Ray, A.C. Total long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake and food sources in the United States compared to recommended intakes: NHANES 2003-2008. Lipids 2017, 52, 917-927. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Razzaghi, H.; Tinker, S.C. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999-2006. Food Nutr. Res. 2014, 58, 23287. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Nordgren, T.M.; Lyden, E.; Anderson-Berry, A.; Hanson, C. Omega-3 fatty acid intake of pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States: Potential for deficiency? Nutrients 2017, 9, 197. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. Tooze, J.A.; Midthune, D.; Dodd, K.W.; Freedman, L.S.; Krebs-Smith, S.M.; Subar, A.F.; Guenther, P.M.; Carroll, R.J.; Kipnis, V. A new statistical method for estimating the usual intake of episodically consumed foods with application to their distribution. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2006,106,1575-1587. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Questionnaire (or Examination Protocol, or Laboratory Protocol); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Hyattsville, MD, USA. Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/index.htm (accessed on 27 March 2018).
  45. Mozurkewich, E.L.; Clinton, C.M.; Chilimigras, J.L.; Hamilton, S.E.; Allbaugh, L.J.; Berman, D.R.; Marcus, S.M.; Romero, V.C.; Treadwell, M.C.; Keeton, K.L.; et al. The mothers, omega-3, and mental health study: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2013,208, 313.e1-313.e9. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. Makrides, M.; Gibson, R.A.; McPhee, A.J.; Yelland, L.; Quinlivan, J.; Ryan, P. Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2010, 304,1675-1683. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. Ertel, K.A.; Rich-Edwards, J.W.; Koenen, K.C. Maternal depression in the united states: Nationally representative rates and risks. J. Womens Health 2011, 20,1609-1617. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. Chang, J.P.; Lin, C.Y.; Lin, P.Y.; Shih, Y.H.; Chiu, T.H.; Ho, M.; Yang, H.T.; Huang, S.Y.; Galecki, P.; Su, K.P. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory markers in major depressive episodes during pregnancy. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2018, 80, 273-278. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. Pinto, T.J.; Vilela, A.A.; Farias, D.R.; Lepsch, J.; Cunha, G.M.; Vaz, J.S.; Factor-Litvak, P.; Kac, G. Serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are inversely associated with longitudinal changes in depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Epidemiol. Psychiatr. Sci. 2017, 26,157-168. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. Doornbos, B.; van Goor, S.A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D.A.; Schaafsma, A.; Korf, J.; Muskiet, F.A. Supplementation of a low dose of DHA or DHA+AA does not prevent peripartum depressive symptoms in a small population based sample. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2009, 33, 49-52. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. Keenan, K.; Hipwell, A.E.; Bortner, J.; Hoffmann, A.; McAloon, R. Association between fatty acid supplementation and prenatal stress in African Americans: A randomized controlled trial. Obstet. Gynecol. 2014, 124, 1080-1087. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. Su, K.P.; Huang, S.Y.; Chiu, T.H.; Huang, K.C.; Huang, C.L.; Chang, H.C.; Pariante, C.M. Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Clin. Psychiatry 2008, 69, 644-651. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. Hurtado, J.A.; Iznaola, C.; Pena, M.; Ruiz, J.; Pena-Quintana, L.; Kajarabille, N.; Rodriguez-Santana, Y.; Sanjurjo, P.; Aldamiz-Echevarria, L.; Ochoa, J.; et al. Effects of maternal omega-3 supplementation on fatty acids and on visual and cognitive development. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 2015, 61, 472-480. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Meldrum, S.; Dunstan, J.A.; Foster, J.K.; Simmer, K.; Prescott, S.L. Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: A 12 year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2061-2067. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. Makrides, M.; Gould, J.F.; Gawlik, N.R.; Yelland, L.N.; Smithers, L.G.; Anderson, P.J.; Gibson, R.A. Four-year follow-up of children born to women in a randomized trial of prenatal DHA supplementation. JAMA 2014, 311,1802-1804. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. Mulder, K.A.; King, D.J.; Innis, S.M. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in infants before birth identified using a randomized trial of maternal DHA supplementation in pregnancy. PLoS ONE 2014, 9, e83764. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  57. Judge, M.P.; Harel, O.; Lammi-Keefe, C.J. Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid-containing functional food during pregnancy: Benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not on recognition memory tasks at age 9 mo. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007, 85,1572-1577. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. Kannass, K.N.; Colombo, J.; Carlson, S.E. Maternal DHA levels and toddler free-play attention. Dev. Neuropsychol. 2009, 34,159-174. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. Dunstan, J.A.; Simmer, K.; Dixon, G.; Prescott, S.L. Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: A randomised controlled trial. Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008, 93, F45-F50. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. Gustafson, K.M.; Carlson, S.E.; Colombo, J.; Yeh, H.W.; Shaddy, D.J.; Li, S.; Kerling, E.H. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy on fetal heart rate and variability: A randomized clinical trial. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 2013, 88, 331-338. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. Miyake, Y.; Sasaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Ohfuji, S.; Hirota, Y. Maternal fat consumption during pregnancy and risk of wheeze and eczema in Japanese infants aged 16-24 months: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study. Thorax 2009, 64, 815-821. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. Soto-Ramirez, N.; Karmaus, W.; Zhang, H.; Liu, J.; Billings, D.; Gangur, V.; Amrol, D.; da Costa, K.A.; Davis, S.; Goetzl, L. Fatty acids in breast milk associated with asthma-like symptoms and atopy in infancy: A longitudinal study. J. Asthma 2012, 49, 926-934. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. Salam, M.T.; Li, Y.F.; Langholz, B.; Gilliland, F.D. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and risk of early childhood asthma. J. Asthma 2005, 42, 513-518. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  64. Calvani, M.; Alessandri, C.; Sopo, S.M.; Panetta, V.; Pingitore, G.; Tripodi, S.; Zappala, D.; Zicari, A.M. Consumption of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy and development of allergic sensitizations in the offspring: Role of maternal atopy. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 2006,17, 94-102. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  65. Romero, V.C.; Somers, E.C.; Stolberg, V.; Clinton, C.; Chensue, S.; Djuric, Z.; Berman, D.R.; Treadwell, M.C.; Vahratian, A.M.; Mozurkewich, E. Developmental programming for allergy: A secondary analysis of the mothers, omega-3, and mental health study. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 2013, 208, 316.e1-316.e6. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  66. Granot, E.; Jakobovich, E.; Rabinowitz, R.; Levy, P.; Schlesinger, M. DHA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation affects infants' cellular but not humoral immune response. Mediat. Inflamm. 2011, 2011, 493925. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  67. Dunstan, J.A.; Mori, T.A.; Barden, A.; Beilin, L.J.; Taylor, A.L.; Holt, P.G.; Prescott, S.L. Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy reduces interleukin-13 levels in cord blood of infants at high risk of atopy. Clin. Exp. Allergy 2003, 33, 442-448. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  68. Furuhjelm, C.; Warstedt, K.; Fageras, M.; Falth-Magnusson, K.; Larsson, J.; Fredriksson, M.; Duchen, K. Allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age in relation to plasma omega-3 fatty acids and maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 2011, 22, 505-514. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  69. Furuhjelm, C.; Warstedt, K.; Larsson, J.; Fredriksson, M.; Bottcher, M.F.; Falth-Magnusson, K.; Duchen, K. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation may decrease the risk of infant allergy. Acta Paediatr. 2009, 98,1461-1467. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  70. Dunstan, J.A.; Mori, T.A.; Barden, A.; Beilin, L.J.; Taylor, A.L.; Holt, P.G.; Prescott, S.L. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: A randomized, controlled trial. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2003,112,1178-1184. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  71. Farina, M.; Rocha, J.B.; Aschner, M. Mechanisms of methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity: Evidence from experimental studies. Life Sci. 2011, 89, 555-563. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  72. Ceccatelli, S.; Bose, R.; Edoff, K.; Onishchenko, N.; Spulber, S. Long-lasting neurotoxic effects of exposure to methylmercury during development. J. Intern. Med. 2013,273, 490-497. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  73. Mozaffarian, D.; Rimm, E.B. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: Evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA 2006, 296,1885-1899. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  74. Davidson, P.W.; Myers, G.J.; Cox, C.; Axtell, C.; Shamlaye, C.; Sloane-Reeves, J.; Cernichiari, E.; Needham, L.; Choi, A.; Wang, Y.; et al. Effects of prenatal and postnatal methylmercury exposure from fish consumption on neurodevelopment: Outcomes at 66 months of age in the seychelles child development study. JAMA 1998, 280, 701-707. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  75. Oken, E.; Kleinman, K.P.; Berland, W.E.; Simon, S.R.; Rich-Edwards, J.W.; Gillman, M.W. Decline in fish consumption among pregnant women after a national mercury advisory. Obstet. Gynecol. 2003,102,346-351. [PubMed]
  76. McLean Pirkle, C.; Peek-Ball, C.; Outerbridge, E.; Rouja, P.M. Examining the impact of a public health message on fish consumption in bermuda. PLoS ONE 2015,10, e0139459. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  77. Kitson, A.P. Pan-frying salmon in an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enriched margarine prevents epa and dha loss. Food Chem. 2009,114, 927-932. [CrossRef]
  78. Turkkan, A. Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition and fatty acid composition of seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, linnaeus, 1758). Food Bioprod. Process. 2008, 86,163-166. [CrossRef]
  79. Campbell, F.M.; Gordon, M.J.; Dutta-Roy, A.K. Preferential uptake of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by isolated human placental membranes. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 1996,155, 77-83. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  80. Friedman, Z.; Danon, A.; Lamberth, E.L., Jr.; Mann, W.J. Cord blood fatty acid composition in infants and in their mothers during the third trimester. J. Pediatr. 1978, 92,461-466. [CrossRef]
  81. Ruyle, M.; Connor, W.E.; Anderson, G.J.; Lowensohn, R.I. Placental transfer of essential fatty acids in humans: Venous-arterial difference for docosahexaenoic acid in fetal umbilical erythrocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1990, 87, 7902-7906. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  82. Jensen, C.L.; Maude, M.; Anderson, R.E.; Heird, W.C. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of lactating women on the fatty acid composition of breast milk lipids and maternal and infant plasma phospholipids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000, 71, 292s-299s. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  83. Montgomery, C.; Speake, B.K.; Cameron, A.; Sattar, N.; Weaver, L.T. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and fetal accretion. Br. J. Nutr. 2003, 90,135-145. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  84. Makrides, M.; Neumann, M.A.; Gibson, R.A. Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on breast milk composition. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1996, 50, 352-357. [PubMed]
  85. Krauss-Etschmann, S.; Shadid, R.; Campoy, C.; Hoster, E.; Demmelmair, H.; Jimenez, M.; Gil, A.; Rivero, M.; Veszpremi, B.; Decsi, T.; et al. Effects of fish-oil and folate supplementation of pregnant women on maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid: A European randomized multicenter trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007, 85,1392-1400. [PubMed]
  86. Helland, I.B.; Saugstad, O.D.; Saarem, K.; Van Houwelingen, A.C.; Nylander, G.; Drevon, C.A. Supplementation of n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation reduces maternal plasma lipid levels and provides DHA to the infants. J. Matern. Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006,19, 397-406. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  87. Dunstan, J.A.; Mitoulas, L.R.; Dixon, G.; Doherty, D.A.; Hartmann, P.E.; Simmer, K.; Prescott, S.L. The effects of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on breast milk fatty acid composition over the course of lactation: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatr. Res. 2007, 62, 689-694. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
9766 Omega-3 recommendations.jpg admin 22 Apr, 2018 14:39 147.46 Kb 210
9765 Omega-3 RDA.pdf PDF 2018 admin 22 Apr, 2018 14:38 301.78 Kb 60
See any problem with this page? Report it (FINALLY WORKS)