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Omega-3 – fewer than 5 percent of adult women get the RDA – April 2018

Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: An Analysis of NHANES 2001–2014

Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 416; doi:10.3390/nu10040416, Published: 28 March 2018
Zhiying Zhang 1, jazhang at nbty.com, Victor L. Fulgoni III 2, Penny M. Kris-Etherton 3 and Susan Hazels Mitmesser 1 Nutrition and Scientific Affairs, The Nature’s Bounty Co., Ronkonkoma, NY 11779, USA


This study failed to incorporate the decreases of Omega-3 due to faming and cooking

Less Omega-3 in farmed fish

Omega-3 reduction when cooked at high temperature

Much less Omega-3 actually consumed than reported by this study

  • Since 60% of the fish now consumed are farmed fish, and that much of it is cooked at high temperature
    I suspect that >98% of the women now fail to actually consume the Omega-3 RDA
  • Note: There are huge differences in effectiveness between different Omega-3 supplements
  • Not clear about canned albacore tuna
    • One study found Albacore tuna has 10X more Omega-3 than regular canneed tuna
    • Another study found that canned tuna had no Omega-3
    • I switched to Albacore tuna about 20 years ago - Henry Lahore, founder of VitaminDWiki

Vitamin D and Omega-3 category starts with

396 Omega-3 items in category Omega-3 helps with: Autism (8 studies), Depression (29 studies), Cardiovascular (34 studies), Cognition (50 studies), Pregnancy (40 studies), Infant (32 studies), Obesity (13 studies), Mortality (7 studies), Breast Cancer (5 studies), Smoking, Sleep, Stroke, Longevity, Trauma (12 studies), Inflammation (18 studies), Multiple Sclerosis (9 studies), VIRUS (12 studies), etc
CIlck here for details

Items in both categories Omega-3 and Pregnancy:

See also VitaminDWiki

Recommendations for women by many countries and organizations 2017

US 250 mg each of EPA and DHA
Japan 1800 mg TOTAL (about 3X of US)

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Table 1. EPA and DHA worldwide recommendations for pregnant and lactating women


Background: The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant and lactating women should consume 8–12 oz. per week of seafood.

Methods: We determined the usual intakes, percentage not meeting recommendations, and trends in EPA and DHA intakes among childbearing-age and pregnant women (15–44 years of age) using the NHANES cycles 2001–2002 through 2013–2014.

Results: For the childbearing-age women, the mean usual intake of seafood was 0.44 ± 0.02 oz. equivalent per day and 100% of the population was below the DGA recommendation. Mean usual intakes of EPA, DHA, and combined EPA and DHA from foods and dietary supplements combined were 26.8 ± 1.4, 62.2 ± 1.9, and 88.1 ± 3.0 mg per day, respectively. Over 95% of the sample did not meet the daily intakes of 250 mg EPA and DHA. Similar results were observed for pregnant women. After controlling for covariates, there were slight but significant increases in EPA and DHA intakes from foods and dietary supplements over the 14-year span among childbearing-age (p = 0.005) and pregnant women (p = 0.002).

Conclusions: It was estimated that a majority of U.S. childbearing-age and pregnant women consumed significantly lower amounts of seafood than what the DGA recommends, which subsequently leads to low intakes of EPA and DHA; in addition, dietary supplement use has not eliminated the nutrient shortfall.


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