BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018 Oct 22;18(1):412. doi: 10.1186/s12884-018-2045-1.
Kassai MS1, Cafeo FR2, Affonso-Kaufman FA2, Suano-Souza FI3,4, Sarni ROS1.
- Preterm birth might be prevented by Vitamin D, Omega-3, etc. (International survey) – Jan 2019
- Preterm births 4 X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor (white infants in Italy) – meta-analysis Aug 2018
- Omega-3 index of 5 greatly decreases the risk of an early preterm birth – Dec 2018
- Preterm birth 4X more likely if Vitamin D deficient – Feb 2018
Pregnancy category starts with
- see also
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D
- Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D
- Dark skin births are much riskier due to lack of vitamin D,
- All items in category Infant/Child
- breastfed 887 items as of Jan 2018
- Preeclampsia 825 items as of Jan 2018
- Pre-term 4710 items as of Dec 2018
- "polycystic ovary syndrome" OR PCOS 303 items as of Jan 2018
- Gestational Diabetes
- c-section OR "caesarean section" (various spellings) 802 items as of Aug 2018
- postpartum depression 208 items as of Aug 2018
- Search VitaminDiiki for MISCARRIAGE OR "Spontaneous abortion" 541 as of June 2018
- Search VitaminDWiki for "Assisted reproduction" 33 items as of Feb 2017
- Fertility and Sperm category listing has
96 items along with related searches
- (Stunting OR “low birth weight” OR LBW) 505 items as of Jan 2018
- Ensure a healthy pregnancy and baby - take Vitamin D before conception
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summaryProblem
Reduces Evidence 0. Chance of not conceiving 3.4 times Observe 1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe 2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 times Randomized Controlled Trial 3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times Randomized Controlled Trial 4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe 5. Premature birth 2 times Randomized Controlled Trial 6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 times Observe Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 times RCT - Omega-3 7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times Randomized Controlled Trial 8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis 9. Infant height, weight, head size
within normal limits
Randomized Controlled Trial 10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times Randomized Controlled Trial 11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention 12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 times Observe 13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 times Randomized Controlled Trial 14. Good motor skills @ age 3 1.4 times Observe 15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times Randomized Controlled Trial 16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times Randomized Controlled Trial
Preterm births are VERY costly – Feb 2017 contains this cost-analysis
Assumptions: additional $50,000 per premature birth, $100 for education & supplements per pregnancy
Net savings after
(5,000 IU avg)
$4,300 20 $100 $2,000 $200
$4,000 $43,000 Omega-3 $646 67 $100 $6,700 $0 $0 $43,300 Vitamin C
reduces early rupture
$646 67 $100 $6,700 $0 $0 $43,300 Iodine $320 100 $100 $10,000 $80 $8,000 $32,000
Does not include additional savings to infant beyond the first year
such as reductions in Autism, MS, Respiratory Tract Infection, Asthma, Allergies
Does not include additional savings to mother
such as reduction in preeclampsia, miscarriage, gestational diabetes, depression
nor does it assign any costs for anguish of possible premie death, stillbirth, time off from work, job productivity
Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health issue. More than half of pregnant women are affected by vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. Studies suggest an association between low vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy with intrauterine growth restriction and prematurity. This study aimed to describe the concentrations of 25(OH)D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) of mothers who delivered preterm newborns compared to women with full-term pregnancy deliveries, as well as to relate 25(OH)D blood concentrations of mothers with those of their newborns.
This cross-sectional study was conducted with 66 mothers who had given birth to preterm babies and their preterm newborns (PTNB, < 32 weeks), and 92 women who had given birth at the full-term of their pregnancy and their newborns (FTNB). Data were collected on the characteristics of mothers (gestational age, diseases, and habits) and newborns (anthropometry and adequacy for gestational age). Ten milliliters of blood were drawn from the mothers and the umbilical cord of newborns at birth to identify the 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations.
Mothers in the PTNB group had significantly lower mean 25(OH)D blood levels (21.7 ± 10.8 ng/mL vs. 26.2 ± 9.8 ng/mL; p = 0.011) and were three times more likely to have insufficiency when compared to mothers in the FTNB group (OR = 2.993; 95%CI 1.02-8.74). Newborns in the PTNB group also had lower 25(OH)D concentrations compared to FTNB group (25.9 ± 13.9 ng/dL vs. 31.9 ± 12.3 ng/dL; p = 0.009). There was a directly proportional correlation between mother and newborn umbilical cord 25(OH)D concentrations in PTNB (r = 0.596; p < 0.001) and FTNB (r = 0.765; p < 0.001).
Mothers who delivered preterm babies and their preterm newborns had lower 25(OH)D concentrations compared to women who had given birth at the full-term of their pregnancy. In both groups, 25(OH)D concentrations of the mothers correlated directly with those of the newborns, and this correlation was higher in the full-term birth group. Nevertheless, the recommended universal vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women to curb the risk of preterm birth is still incipient. More studies are required to clarify the particularities of vitamin D metabolism further and define the adequate 25(OH)D concentrations throughout pregnancy.