BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology May 2013
J Zeitlin,a,b K Szamotulska,c N Drewniak,a,b AD Mohangoo,d J Chalmers,e L Sakkeus,f L Irgens,g,h M Gatt,i M Gissler,j,k B Blondel,a,b The Euro-Peristat Preterm Study Group
- Preterm births are VERY costly – Feb 2017
- Preterm births strongly related to Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor, Iodine, Omega-3, etc
- Vitamin D intervention reduces preterm births and low birth weight by 60 percent – Cochrane Reviews – Nov 2017
- Preterm birth more likely if dark skinned and low vitamin D (not white-skinned) – April 2017
Note: skin color apparently not mentioned by the study on this page
- Preterm birth rate reduced by vitamin D – 78 percent if non-white, 39 percent if white – July 2017
- Preterm birth rate increased 60 percent in 50 years (US) has the following chart
% of US preterm births (< 37 weeks)
- Trends in spontaneous and indicated preterm delivery among singleton gestations in the United States, 2005–2012
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- The epidemiology, etiology, and costs of preterm birth - 2016 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2015.12.011 behind paywall
"After decades of rising preterm birth rates in the USA and other countries, recent prematurity rates seem to be on the decline. Despite this optimistic trend, preterm birth rates remain higher in the USA, where nearly one in every eight infants is born early, compared to other developed countries"
- Temporal Trends in Late Preterm and Early Term Birth Rates in 6 High-Income Countries in North America and Europe and Association With Clinician-Initiated Obstetric Interventions - JAMA 2016
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- Hospitalisations from 1 to 6 Years of Age: Effects of Gestational Age and Severe Neonatal Morbidity - 2015
increasing odds of hospitalisation more than once: 1.49 at 33–34 weeks 10.1111/ppe.12188
Average annual percentage change for preterm birth by country, 1996–2008.* Data series begins in 2000.
Objective To investigate time trends in preterm birth in Europe by multiplicity, gestational age, and onset of delivery.
Design Analysis of aggregate data from routine sources.
Setting Nineteen European countries.
Population Live births in 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008.
Methods Annual risk ratios of preterm birth in each country were estimated with year as a continuous variable for all births and by subgroup using log-binomial regression models.
Main outcome measures Overall preterm birth rate and rate by multiplicity, gestational age group, and spontaneous versus non- spontaneous (induced or prelabour caesarean section) onset of labour.
Results Preterm birth rates rose in most countries, but the magnitude of these increases varied. Rises in the multiple birth rate as well as in the preterm birth rate for multiple births contributed to increases in the overall preterm birth rate. About half of countries experienced no change or decreases in the rates of singleton preterm birth. Where preterm birth rates rose, increases were no more prominent at 35-36 weeks of gestation than at 32-34 weeks of gestation. Variable trends were observed for spontaneous and non-spontaneous preterm births in the 13 countries with mode of onset data; increases were not solely attributed to non-spontaneous preterm births.
Conclusions There was a wide variation in preterm birth trends in European countries. Many countries maintained or reduced rates of singleton preterm birth over the past 15 years, challenging a widespread belief that rising rates are the norm. Understanding these cross-country differences could inform strategies for the prevention of preterm birth.