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4.4 X more likely to have a preterm birth if low vitamin D while pregnant (India) - May 2022


Impact of maternal hypovitaminosis D on birth and neonatal outcome - a prospective cohort study

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2022 May 22;1-8. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2022.2077098. PDF is behind a $58 paywall
Thirupathi Gowtham 1, Soma Venkatesh 1, Soundararajan Palanisamy 1, Setu Rathod 2

Objective: Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women is of special concern as mother is the only source of vitamin D for the developing fetus, and maternal hypovitaminosis D has been implicated in a number of maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the association of maternal circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D] concentration with cord blood 25(OH)D and adverse birth and neonatal outcomes.

Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute (MGMCRI) from January 2020 to December 2020. 121 babies born to mothers with singleton pregnancy tested for serum 25(OH)D level on admission for safe confinement were included in the study and cord blood of the babies were sampled for 25(OH)D. Based on the maternal 25(OH)D level, babies were categorized as those born to mothers with sufficient vitamin D level and those born to mothers with hypovitaminosis D (deficient/insufficient) and primary and secondary outcome was compared between two groups.

Results: Maternal and cord blood hypovitaminosis D was observed in 65% of mothers and 68.6% of babies, respectively. Maternal vitamin D level was the single most significant predictor of cord blood vitamin D level with five-fold increased risk of cord blood hypovitaminosis D in babies born to mothers with hypovitaminosis D. Birthweight (t = -2.219, p = .028) and preterm birth (aOR = 4.417, 95% CI: 1.03-18.9) was significantly associated with maternal hypovitaminosis D and a trend toward increased risk of LBW (aOR - 2.1, 95%CI: 0.6-7.3), SGA babies (aOR - 1.5, 95% CI: 0.5-4.7), perinatal depression (aOR - 1.5, 95% CI: 0.4-5.8) and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (aOR = 2.68, 95%CI: 0.942-7.6) was observed.

Conclusions: Hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women is a significant health issue affecting both the mother and her baby. Safest dose for supplementation during pregnancy to prevent adverse perinatal outcome needs to be evaluated.


VitaminDWiki Pregnancy pages with PRETERM of PRE-TERM in title (62 as of May 2022)

This list is automatically updated

Items found: 66
Title Modified
Preterm birth rate increased in US but decreased in Finland (high Vitamin D) - Jan 2024 09 Feb, 2024
Preterm birth chance reduced –17P (expensive drug) or Vitamin D – June 2015 01 Jan, 2024
Preterm birth and low Vitamin D - many studies 24 Dec, 2023
Preterm births are VERY costly – Feb 2017 24 Dec, 2023
Preterm birth cost for employers approximately 50,000 dollars – Oct 2017 24 Dec, 2023
Preterm Birth 2.7X more likely if low vitamin D (dark skin in this case) - Nov 2023 01 Nov, 2023
4.4 X more likely to have a preterm birth if low vitamin D while pregnant (India) - May 2022 01 Nov, 2023
Omega-3 supplementation reduced preterm birth rate by 4X – RCT July 2020 21 Oct, 2022
Preterm birth decreased by Omege-3, etc. - many studies 21 Oct, 2022
Arab preterm infants often have less than 10 ng of vitamin D - 2010 15 May, 2022
Preterm birth interventions – 4 studies found possible vitamin D benefit – Cochrane – Nov 2018 15 May, 2022
Preterm birth might be prevented by Vitamin D, Omega-3, etc. (International survey) – Jan 2019 15 May, 2022
Preterm Births - promising preventions – anti-oxidants, Vitamin D, Omega-3, Zinc, etc. – Jan 2019 15 May, 2022
Preterm birth reduction by nutrients - Vitamin D is the best, Omega-3 is next best – May 2022 15 May, 2022
Preterm birth rate of pregnant smokers cut in half if take Omega-3 – RCT May 2017 20 Feb, 2022
Preterm birth varies with season: 25 percent more likely if conception in autumn – Feb 2022 04 Feb, 2022
Pre-term birth rate cut in half with 1000 milligrams of Omega-3 (if initially low) – RCT May 2021 04 Jun, 2021
Preterm birth risk increased 16 pcnt if heat wave (perhaps outside less) - Nov 2020 16 Nov, 2020
Preterm birth associated with many genes, including the Vitamin D Receptor again – Jan 2020 30 Jan, 2020
Preterm birth 8X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Dec 2019 31 Dec, 2019
8 percent fewer preterm births if adequate Selenium from food – Aug 2019 24 Dec, 2019
Pregnant women in Australia to take Omega-3 when told of reduction in preterm births – Dec 2019 19 Nov, 2019
Preterm birth 9 X more likely if fetus had a poor Vitamin D Receptor and previous miscarriage – Aug 2017 12 Nov, 2019
Preterm birth rate not vary with vitamin D level (when all are less than 30 ng) – Oct 2019 17 Oct, 2019
Extreme preterm infants helped somewhat by 800 IU of vitamin D – RCT Jan 2018 01 Oct, 2019
Preterm Births reduced by Omega-3, Zinc, and Vitamin D – Aug 2019 09 Aug, 2019
Preterm birth increases risk of heart disease by 1.5 X by age 40 – June 2019 06 Aug, 2019
Preterm Births decreased by Omega-3 (analysis of 184 countries) – April 2019 27 Apr, 2019
Preterm birth 3X more likely if low vitamin D – Oct 2018 07 Feb, 2019
Omega-3 index of 5 greatly decreases the risk of an early preterm birth – Dec 2018 04 Jan, 2019
Preterm births 12 X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor (white infants in Italy) – meta-analysis Aug 2018 27 Aug, 2018
Third trimester Vitamin D levels were lower if pre-term labor was expected – March 2018 24 Mar, 2018
Preterm birth 4X more likely if very low Vitamin D (Chinese) - Feb 2018 28 Feb, 2018
Preterm birth rates increased in 15 European countries – Oct 2013 23 Dec, 2017
Vitamin D intervention reduces preterm births and low birth weight by 60 percent – Cochrane Reviews – Nov 2017 07 Dec, 2017
Preterm birth rate increased 60 percent in 50 years (US) 26 Nov, 2017
Preterm births strongly related to Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor, Iodine, Omega-3, etc 13 Nov, 2017
Vitamin D Receptor is associated with preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth – Nov 2017 10 Nov, 2017
Preterm birth trend toward 2.5 X more likely if less than 10 ng of Vitamin D – Aug 2017 26 Aug, 2017
Preterm birth rate reduced by vitamin D – 78 percent if non-white, 39 percent if white – July 2017 27 Jul, 2017
Preterm birth more likely if dark skinned and low vitamin D (not white-skinned) – April 2017 06 Jul, 2017
Risk of preterm birth twice as likely when less than 10 ng of vitamin D – Nov 2016 13 Apr, 2017
Preterm labor 20 times more likely if low vitamin D, etc. (India) – Feb 2017 08 Mar, 2017
Preterm birth rate reduced by 43 percent with adequate Vitamin D supplementation – meta-analysis Feb 2017 02 Mar, 2017
Pre-term birth - many of risk factors are associated with low vitamin D 27 Feb, 2017
Preterm birth rate reduced 57 percent by Vitamin D – Nov 2015 23 Jan, 2017
Vitamin D Webinar - cost of pre-term birth etc- Baggerly Nov 2013 11 Dec, 2016
Preterm birth extended by 2 weeks with Omega-3 – Meta-analysis Nov 2015 10 Dec, 2016
Omega-3 supplementation during pregnancy reduce early preterm births (save 1500 USD per child) – Aug 2016 12 Oct, 2016
Zinc helps pregnancies – 14 percent fewer preterm births, etc. – Cochrane RCT Feb 2015 14 Jun, 2016
Preterm birth has become the leading cause of infant mortality (vitamin D not mentioned) – JAMA June 2016 07 Jun, 2016
Preterm birth 30 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2016 20 May, 2016
Asthmatic pregnant women had 30 percent more preterm births if air pollution (vitamin D not mentioned) – March 2016 09 Mar, 2016
Omega-3 helps pregnancy in many ways: preterm 26 percent less likely etc – review July 2012 08 Sep, 2015
Extreme preterm survival 30 percent less likely if little sunshine 23-28 weeks – June 2015 05 Sep, 2015
Magnesium (Sulfate) reduces risk of cerebral palsy for those at risk of pre-term births – Dec 2013 18 Aug, 2015
Respiratory distress after preterm birth is more likely if low vitamin D – review April 2015 05 Aug, 2015
Pre-term births reduced in half if 40 ng of vitamin D in 3rd trimester – Nov 2014 15 Mar, 2015
Chance of preterm birth is strongly associated with low vitamin D – Feb 2015 05 Feb, 2015
The more preterm the birth, the lower the vitamin D level (both mothers and infants) – Feb 2014 05 Feb, 2015
Preterm infants more likely to have vitamin D levels below 20 ng – Feb 2014 05 Feb, 2015
Decreased risk of preterm birth if have more than 36 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2015 09 Jan, 2015
Pre-term birth 3X more likely and C-section 4X if less than 20 ng of vitamin D – May 2012 13 Feb, 2014
Recurrent pre term birth and low vitamin D – Dec 2012 23 Jan, 2013
Blacks have more pre-term births due to low nutrients such as vitamin D – Sept 2011 14 Sep, 2011
Pre-term birth not associated with first tri-mester vitamin D – April 2011 21 Apr, 2011

VitaminDWiki - Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D contains

Problem
Vit. D
Reduces
Evidence
0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
RCT
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
eId="3271" width="450" link="Ensure a healthy pregnancy and baby - take Vitamin D before conception" }


VitaminDWiki - Preterm births are VERY costly – Feb 2017 contains

Assumptions: additional $50,000 per premature birth, $100 for education & supplements per pregnancy

Net savings
per birth
After subtract
all cost
s
# needed
to eliminate
1 preterm
Cost of
educ, supp
per pregnancy
Total cost
Educ/supp.
Cost of
test per
pregnancy
Total
test
costs
Net savings after
subtract costs
Vitamin D
(5,000 IU avg)
$4,30020$100$2,000$200%%%(2 tests)$4,000$43,000
Omega-3 $64667 $100$6,700$0 $0 $43,300
Vitamin C
reduces early rupture
$64667$100$6,700$0$0 $43,300
Iodine $320100$100$10,000$80$8,000$32,000

Does not include additional savings to infant beyond the first year
   such as reductions in Autism, MS, Respiratory Tract Infection, Asthma, Allergies
Does not include additional savings to mother
   such as reduction in preeclampsia, miscarriage, gestational diabetes, depression
   nor does it assign any costs for anguish of possible premie death, stillbirth, time off from work, job productivity


VitaminDWiki Pregnancy pages with "COVID" in title

This list is automatically updated

Items found: 17
Title Modified
Yet another reason to take Vitamin D while pregnant – fight COVID - meta-analysis May 2023 10 Jun, 2023
COVID lockdowns reduced Vitamin D levels - should supplement - April 2023 02 May, 2023
Pfizer COVID vaccination during pregnancy clinical trial is still not published - Feb 2023 25 Feb, 2023
Worse COVID during 3Q pregnancy if 2.5 ng lower Vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2022 14 Sep, 2022
2.3 X more poor Neurodevelopment in infant if COVID late in pregnancy – June 2022 11 Jun, 2022
Severe COVID while pregnant - none had taken any vitamin D – Oct 2021 01 May, 2022
COVID while pregnant: 2.6 X more likely to be Vitamin D deficient (need to supplement) - March 2022 12 Apr, 2022
COVID breakthru 2X more likely if pregnant (should take Vitamin D) - April 2022 02 Apr, 2022
COVID 2.6 X more likely if low Vitamin D (during pregnancy in this case) – March 2022 26 Mar, 2022
COVID-19 more severe if low Vitamin D (1.8X for pregnancy) – Nov 2021 24 Nov, 2021
Far less vitamin D in breast milk if COVID-19 (no surprise) – Aug 2021 14 Aug, 2021
COVID-21 (COVID-19 with mutations) causing increased pregnancy problems in Brazil and India – May 2021 27 May, 2021
COVID-19, dark skin, pregnancy - Dr. Grimes, etc. - May 2021 27 May, 2021
Increased pregnancy problems with COVID-19 – meta-analysis and letter to editor – April 2021 18 May, 2021
COVID-19 while pregnant increased many infant health problems by 1.5X – April 29, 2021 29 Apr, 2021
COVID-19 while pregnant is not good (increased risk of dying by 22X) – April 2021 26 Apr, 2021
Vitamin D plus Inositol might help pregnancies during COVID-19 – April 2021 26 Jan, 2021

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