Toggle Health Problems and D

Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are risk factors for various cancers – meta-analysis Jan 2014

Systematic review and meta-analysis on vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and cancer risk.

Tumour Biol. 2014 Jan 10.
Xu Y, He B, Pan Y, Deng Q, Sun H, Li R, Gao T, Song G, Wang S.
Central Laboratory of Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 68 Changle Road, Nanjing, 210006, China.

See also VitaminDWiki

Vitamin D Receptor category has the following

519 studies in Vitamin D Receptor category

Vitamin D tests cannot detect Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) problems
A poor VDR restricts Vitamin D from getting in the cells

See also: 48 studies in the Resveratrol category

It appears that 30% of the population have a poor VDR (40% of the Obese )
Several diseases protect themselves by deactivating the Vitamin D receptor. Example: Breast Cancer
- - - - - - - -
The Vitamin D Receptor is associated with many health problems

Health problems include: Autoimmune (19 studies), Breast Cancer (22 studies), Colon Cancer (13 studies), Cardiovascular (23 studies), Cognition (16 studies), Diabetes (24 studies), Hypertension (9 studies), Infant (22 studies), Lupus (6 studies), Metabolic Syndrome (4 studies), Mortality (4 studies), Multiple Sclerosis (12 studies), Obesity (17 studies), Pregnancy (24 studies), Rheumatoid Arthritis (10 studies), TB (8 studies), VIRUS (36 studies),   Click here for details
Some health problems, such as Breast Cancer, Diabetes, and COVID protect themselves by reducing VDR activation

55 health problems associated with poor VDR

A poor VDR is associated with the risk of 55 health problems  click here for details
The risk of 48 diseases at least double with poor VDR as of Jan 2023  click here for details
Some health problem, such as Breast Cancer reduce the VDR

VDR at-home test $29 - results not easily understood in 2016
There are hints that you may have inherited a poor VDR

How to increase VDR activation

Compensate for poor VDR by increasing one or more:

1) Vitamin D supplement  Sun
Ultraviolet -B
Vitamin D in the blood
and thus in the cells
2) MagnesiumVitamin D in the blood
 AND in the cells
3) Omega-3 Vitamin D in the cells
4) Resveratrol Vitamin D Receptor
5) Intense exercise Vitamin D Receptor
6) Get prescription for VDR activator
   paricalcitol, maxacalcitol?
Vitamin D Receptor
7) Quercetin (flavonoid) Vitamin D Receptor
8) Zinc is in the VDRVitamin D Receptor
9) BoronVitamin D Receptor ?,
10) Essential oils e.g. ginger, curcuminVitamin D Receptor
11) ProgesteroneVitamin D Receptor
12) Infrequent high concentration Vitamin D
Increases the concentration gradient
Vitamin D Receptor
13) Sulfroaphane and perhaps sulfurVitamin D Receptor
14) Butyrate especially gutVitamin D Receptor
15) BerberineVitamin D Receptor

Note: If you are not feeling enough benefit from Vitamin D, you might try increasing VDR activation. You might feel the benefit within days of adding one or more of the above

Far healthier and stronger at age 72 due to supplements Includes 6 supplements that help the VDR
All items in both Genes and Cancer categories (this does not display items in the Cancer sub-categories)

All items in both Genes and Breast Cancer categories

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) can influence cancer susceptibility through binding to vitamin D. However, the previous studies were contradictory. Therefore this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the association between VDR polymorphisms (BsmI, TaqI, FokI, and ApaI) and cancer risk. One hundred twenty-six studies were enrolled through PubMed.

  • For VDR BsmI polymorphism, significantly increased cancer risks were observed in the overall analysis.
  • In the further stratified analysis, increased risks were observed in colorectal and skin cancer, especially in Caucasian population.

However, no significant associations were observed in other VDR polymorphisms in the overall analysis.
In the further subgroup analysis,

  • increased risks were found in oral, breast, and basal cell cancer while
  • decreased risk was found in prostate cancer in t allele carriers of TaqI polymorphism.
  • For VDR FokI polymorphism,
    increased risks were found in ovarian and skin cancer while
    decreased risk in glioma in f allele carriers.
  • For VDR ApaI polymorphism,
    increased risk was observed in basal cell cancer, especially in Asian population in a allele carriers.

In conclusion, these results indicated that

  • b allele of BamI polymorphism was a
    risk factor for cancer susceptibility.
  • Meanwhile, t allele of TaqI polymorphism was a
    risk factor for oral, breast, and basal cell cancer and a
    protective factor for prostate cancer.
  • Moreover, f allele of FokI polymorphism was a
    risk factor for ovarian and skin cancer and a protective factor for glioma.
  • Finally, a allele of ApaI polymorphism was a
    risk factor for basal cell cancer in Asian population.

PMID: 24408013


  1. Bertone-Johnson ER. Vitamin D, and breast cancer. Ann Epidemiol. 2009;19(7):462–7. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.01.003. CrossRef
  2. Manolagas SC, Yu XP, Girasole G, Bellido T. Vitamin D and the hematolymphopoietic tissue: a 1994 update. Semin Nephrol. 1994;14(2):129–43.
  3. Deeb KK, Trump DL, Johnson CS. Vitamin D signalling pathways in cancer: potential for anticancer therapeutics. Nat Rev Cancer. 2007;7(9):684–700. doi:10.1038/nrc2196. CrossRef
  4. Norman AW. Minireview: vitamin D receptor: new assignments for an already busy receptor. Endocrinology. 2006;147(12):5542–8. doi:10.1210/en.2006-0946. CrossRef
  5. Raimondi S, Johansson H, Maisonneuve P, Gandini S. Review and meta-analysis on vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30(7):1170–80. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgp103. CrossRef
  6. Zmuda JM, Cauley JA, Ferrell RE. Molecular epidemiology of vitamin D receptor gene variants. Epidemiol Rev. 2000;22(2):203–17. CrossRef
  7. Whitfield GK, Remus LS, Jurutka PW, Zitzer H, Oza AK, Dang HT, et al. Functionally relevant polymorphisms in the human nuclear vitamin D receptor gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;177(1–2):145–59. CrossRef
  8. Miyamoto K, Kesterson RA, Yamamoto H, Taketani Y, Nishiwaki E, Tatsumi S, et al. Structural organization of the human vitamin D receptor chromosomal gene and its promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 1997;11(8):1165–79.
  9. Uitterlinden AG, Fang Y, Van Meurs JB, Pols HA, Van Leeuwen JP. Genetics and biology of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. Gene. 2004;338(2):143–56. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2004.05.014. CrossRef
  10. Mocellin S, Nitti D. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and the risk of cutaneous melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer. 2008;113(9):2398–407. doi:10.1002/cncr.23867. CrossRef
  11. Colin EM, Weel AE, Uitterlinden AG, Buurman CJ, Birkenhager JC, Pols HA, et al. Consequences of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms for growth inhibition of cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2000;52(2):211–6. CrossRef
  12. Mishra DK, Wu Y, Sarkissyan M, Sarkissyan S, Chen Z, Shang X, et al. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and prognosis of breast cancer among African-American and Hispanic women. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57967. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057967. CrossRef
  13. Fuhrman BJ, Freedman DM, Bhatti P, Doody MM, Fu YP, Chang SC, et al. Sunlight, polymorphisms of vitamin D-related genes and risk of breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 2013;33(2):543–51.
  14. Shahbazi S, Alavi S, Majidzadeh AK, Ghaffarpour M, Soleimani A, Mahdian R. BsmI but not FokI polymorphism of VDR gene is contributed in breast cancer. Med Oncol. 2013;30(1):393. doi:10.1007/s12032-012-0393-7. CrossRef
  15. Holt SK, Kwon EM, Peters U, Ostrander EA, Stanford JL. Vitamin D pathway gene variants and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(6):1929–33. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0113. CrossRef
  16. Holick CN, Stanford JL, Kwon EM, Ostrander EA, Nejentsev S, Peters U. Comprehensive association analysis of the vitamin D pathway genes, VDR, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1, in prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(10):1990–9. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0487. CrossRef
  17. Li H, Stampfer MJ, Hollis JB, Mucci LA, Gaziano JM, Hunter D, et al. A prospective study of plasma vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, and prostate cancer. PLoS Med. 2007;4(3):e103. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040103. CrossRef
  18. Jenab M, McKay J, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, van Duijnhoven FJ, Ferrari P, Slimani N, et al. Vitamin D receptor and calcium sensing receptor polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer in European populations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18(9):2485–91. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0319. CrossRef
  19. Slattery ML, Murtaugh M, Caan B, Ma KN, Wolff R, Samowitz W. Associations between BMI, energy intake, energy expenditure, VDR genotype and colon and rectal cancers (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15(9):863–72. doi:10.1007/s10552-004-1048-6. CrossRef
  20. Kim HS, Newcomb PA, Ulrich CM, Keener CL, Bigler J, Farin FM, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphism and the risk of colorectal adenomas: evidence of interaction with dietary vitamin D and calcium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(8):869–74.
  21. Mostowska A, Sajdak S, Pawlik P, Lianeri M, Jagodzinski PP. Vitamin D receptor gene BsmI and FokI polymorphisms in relation to ovarian cancer risk in the Polish population. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2013;17(3):183–7. doi:10.1089/gtmb.2012.0332. CrossRef
  22. Grant DJ, Hoyo C, Akushevich L, Iversen ES, Whitaker R, Marks J, et al. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and risk of ovarian cancer in Caucasian and African American women. Gynecol Oncol. 2013;129(1):173–8. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2012.12.027. CrossRef
  23. Tworoger SS, Gates MA, Lee IM, Buring JE, Titus-Ernstoff L, Cramer D, et al. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and risk of ovarian cancer in four studies. Cancer Res. 2009;69(5):1885–91. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3515. CrossRef
  24. DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials. 1986;7(3):177–88. CrossRef
  25. Mantel N, Haenszel W. Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1959;22(4):719–48.
  26. Campbell MJ, Elstner E, Holden S, Uskokovic M, Koeffler HP. Inhibition of proliferation of prostate cancer cells by a 19-nor-hexafluoride vitamin D3 analogue involves the induction of p21waf1, p27kip1 and E-cadherin. J Mol Endocrinol. 1997;19(1):15–27. CrossRef
  27. Ylikomi T, Laaksi I, Lou YR, Martikainen P, Miettinen S, Pennanen P, et al. Antiproliferative action of vitamin D. Vitam Horm. 2002;64:357–406.
  28. Kinyamu HK, Gallagher JC, Knezetic JA, DeLuca HF, Prahl JM, Lanspa SJ. Effect of vitamin D receptor genotypes on calcium absorption, duodenal vitamin D receptor concentration, and serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D levels in normal women. Calcif Tissue Int. 1997;60(6):491–5. CrossRef
  29. Mocharla H, Butch AW, Pappas AA, Flick JT, Weinstein RS, De Togni P, et al. Quantification of vitamin D receptor mRNA by competitive polymerase chain reaction in PBMC: lack of correspondence with common allelic variants. J Bone Miner Res. 1997;12(5):726–33. doi:10.1359/jbmr.1997.12.5.726. CrossRef
  30. Gross C, Musiol IM, Eccleshall TR, Malloy PJ, Feldman D. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms: analysis of ligand binding and hormone responsiveness in cultured skin fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;242(3):467–73. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7986. CrossRef
  31. Morrison NA, Qi JC, Tokita A, Kelly PJ, Crofts L, Nguyen TV, et al. Prediction of bone density from vitamin D receptor alleles. Nature. 1994;367(6460):284–7. doi:10.1038/367284a0. CrossRef
  32. Chudek J, Karkoszka H, Schmidt-Gayk H, Ritz E, Kokot F. Plasma parathyroid hormone, phosphatemia and vitamin D receptor genotype: are they interrelated? J Nephrol. 2000;13(1):54–8.
  33. Bai YH, Lu H, Hong D, Lin CC, Yu Z, Chen BC. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(14):1672–9. doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i14.1672. CrossRef
  34. Gross C, Eccleshall TR, Malloy PJ, Villa ML, Marcus R, Feldman D. The presence of a polymorphism at the translation initiation site of the vitamin D receptor gene is associated with low bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-American women. J Bone Miner Res. 1996;11(12):1850–5. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650111204. CrossRef
  35. Orlow I, Roy P, Reiner AS, Yoo S, Patel H, Paine S, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Int J Cancer. 2012;130(2):405–18. doi:10.1002/ijc.26023. CrossRef
  36. Han J, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ. Polymorphisms in the MTHFR and VDR genes and skin cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28(2):390–7. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgl156. CrossRef
  37. Haussler MR, Whitfield GK, Haussler CA, Hsieh JC, Thompson PD, Selznick SH, et al. The nuclear vitamin D receptor: biological and molecular regulatory properties revealed. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13(3):325–49. doi:10.1359/jbmr.1998.13.3.325. CrossRef
  38. Liu Y, Li C, Chen P, Li X, Li M, Guo H, et al. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e66716. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066716. CrossRef
  39. Jurutka PW, Whitfield GK, Hsieh JC, Thompson PD, Haussler CA, Haussler MR. Molecular nature of the vitamin D receptor and its role in regulation of gene expression. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2001;2(2):203–16. CrossRef
  40. Xu L, Glass CK, Rosenfeld MG. Coactivator and corepressor complexes in nuclear receptor function. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9(2):140–7. doi:10.1016/S0959-437X(99)80021-5. CrossRef
  41. Abbas S, Nieters A, Linseisen J, Slanger T, Kropp S, Mutschelknauss EJ, et al. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and haplotypes and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res. 2008;10(2):R31. doi:10.1186/bcr1994. CrossRef
  42. Guo YJ, Shi ZM, Liu JD, Lei N, Chen QH, Tang Y. Meta-analysis of the relation between the VDR gene TaqI polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer in Asian populations. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(9):4441–4. CrossRef
  43. Bektas-Kayhan K, Unur M, Yaylim-Eraltan I, Ergen HA, Toptas B, Hafiz G, et al. Association of vitamin D receptor TaqI polymorphism and susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma. In Vivo. 2010;24(5):755–9.
  44. Tang C, Chen N, Wu M, Yuan H, Du Y. Fok1 polymorphism of vitamin D receptor gene contributes to breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;117(2):391–9. doi:10.1007/s10549-008-0262-4. CrossRef
  45. Arai H, Miyamoto K, Taketani Y, Yamamoto H, Iemori Y, Morita K, et al. A vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism in the translation initiation codon: effect on protein activity and relation to bone mineral density in Japanese women. J Bone Miner Res. 1997;12(6):915–21. doi:10.1359/jbmr.1997.12.6.915. CrossRef
  46. Anic GM, Thompson RC, Nabors LB, Olson JJ, Browning JE, Madden MH, et al. An exploratory analysis of common genetic variants in the vitamin D pathway including genome-wide associated variants in relation to glioma risk and outcome. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23(9):1443–9. doi:10.1007/s10552-012-0018-7. CrossRef
  47. Clendenen TV, Arslan AA, Koenig KL, Enquist K, Wirgin I, Agren A, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Lett. 2008;260(1–2):209–15. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2007.11.002. CrossRef

Publisher charges $40 for the PDF