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COVID associated with low Vitamin D in 392 overlapping studies - Dec 2021

Vitamin D and COVID-19: where are we now?

Post Graduate Medicine https://doi.org/10.1080/00325481.2021.2017647
Victoria Contreras-Bolívar ORCID Icon,Beatriz García-Fontana ORCID Icon,Cristina García-Fontana ORCID Icon &Manuel Muñoz-Torres ORCID Icon

The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has triggered great interest in the search for the pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 and its associated hyperinflammatory state. The presence of prognostic factors such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity, and age influence the expression of the disease’s clinical severity. Other elements, such as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3) concentrations, are currently being studied. Various studies, mostly observational, have sought to demonstrate whether there is truly a relationship between 25(OH)D3 levels and the acquisition and/or severity of the disease. The objective of this study was to carry out a review of the current data that associate vitamin D status with the acquisition, evolution, and/or severity of infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and to assess whether prevention through vitamin D supplementation can prevent infection and/or improve the evolution once acquired. Vitamin D system has an immunomodulatory function and plays a significant role in various bacterial and viral infections. The immune function of vitamin D is explained in part by the presence of its receptor (VDR) and its activating enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in immune cells. The vitamin D, VDR, and Retinoid X Receptor complex allows the transcription of genes with antimicrobial activities, such as cathelicidins and defensins. COVID-19 characteristically presents a marked hyperimmune state, with the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Thus, there are biological factors linking vitamin D to the cytokine storm, which can herald some of the most severe consequences of COVID-19, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Hypovitaminosis D is widespread worldwide, so the prevention of COVID-19 through vitamin D supplementation is being considered as a possible therapeutic strategy easy to implement. However, more-quality studies and well-designed randomized clinical trials are needed to address this relevant question.

Vitamin D, Immune System, COVID infographic


UK Guidelines: Do not use Vitamin D to prevent nor treat COVID

5.3. Guidelines: vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19
An update was published by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE): 'COVID-19 rapid guideline: vitamin D' that recommended vitamin D supplementation for people in confined spaces, those living in residences, with low sun exposure, or spending more time at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic [124]. The recommended dose is 400 IU/day of cholecalciferol. The recommended period is between October and March (indicated all year round for people without sun exposure during spring and summer). The objective proposed by the authors was to achieve levels of 25(OH)D3 > 10 ng/mL to maintain optimal bone health. The authors indicated that low 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with more severe COVID-19 outcomes. However, they also cautioned that vitamin D supplementation should not be administered solely for the purpose of preventing or treating COVID-19, as clinical trials are necessary to give this recommendation. The US National Academy of Medicine and the European Food Safety Authority recommend achieving 25(OH)D3 levels at least 20 ng/mL. For this purpose, it was indicated that supplementation should be done at 800 IU/day. In addition, in the case of hospital admissions, it is recommended that 25(OH)D3 levels be determined on admission [125]

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Vitamin D meta-analyses for Virus

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16818 Where are we chart.jpg admin 27 Dec, 2021 23:49 106.55 Kb 257
16816 where are we T1.jpg admin 27 Dec, 2021 21:55 672.80 Kb 248
16815 where are we now_compressed.pdf PDF 2021 admin 27 Dec, 2021 21:55 498.72 Kb 186