Table of contents
- Vaccine antibody response to SARS- COVID-19 Vaccine - Aug 2021 preprint
- influenza, hepatitis B, measles, rubella, BCG vaccine, pneumococcal, meningococcal, etc. - 2015
Age and vitamin D affect the magnitude of the antibody response to the first dose of the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 vaccine
Note by VitaminDWiki: A "good" level is vitamin D is at least 100 nmol (40 ng/mL)
Background: Most approved vaccines utilise a two-dose strategy. To enable larger groups of patients to receive the first dose, the UK government increased the gap between the two doses from three to 12 weeks. Here we report on the immunogenicity of the first dose, including effect of age and vitamin D status on these levels over an 8 week-period.
Methods: Blood was collected from healthcare workers (HCW) receiving their first BNT162b2 vaccine dose between January and February 2021. Antibody production was measured, prior to and weekly for 4 weeks post immunization, and a final measurement was performed at 8 weeks. Vitamin D were also measured at baseline.
Findings: Immunization of 97 HCW induced an Ab response that peaked 3·2 weeks post immunization to decrease thereafter. Ab levels remained positive at 8 weeks. The response was significantly modified by age (p<0·001) and greater in younger adults. Response to immunization was significantly affected by vitamin D status (p=0·035), on average 29·3% greater peak value in individuals with 25(OH)D>50nmol/L. No other variable showed significant effect.
Interpretation: The first dose of BNT162b2 produced Ab levels that remained positive after 8 weeks. Peak was greater in younger subjects and 25(OH)D>50nmol/L was beneficial. Booster campaigns should take into consideration vitamin D status which is at its highest following a period of sunshine exposure or following oral supplementation (400-1000IU daily).
Funding: Abbott Diagnostics Ltd supplied the kits used to quantify the anti-SARS -CoV-2 Spike IgG and technical support as well as provided financial support for sample collections.
Declaration of Interest: Two of the authors (SR and MB) are employees of Abbott Diagnostics Ltd who supplied the kits used to quantify the anti-SARS -CoV-2 Spike IgG and technical support as well as provided financial support for sample collections. All other authors have no conflict of interest.
“Let There Be Light”: The Role of Vitamin D in the Immune Response to Vaccines
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015 ; 14(11): 1427-1440. doi:10.1586/14760584.2015.1082426.
Sapna Sadarangania,b, Jennifer A. Whitakera,b,c, and Gregory A. Polanda,c poland.gregory at mayo.edu.
a Mayo Vaccine Research Group
b Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
c Mayo Clinic Division of General Internal Medicine
- Vitamin D has various immunomodulatory actions, including potent actions on the innate immune system, enhancing production of antimicrobial peptide, and biasing toward a Th2 skewed phenotype
- The vitamin D level/threshold that is relevant to immune actions has not been defined, as current definitions of deficiency are based on effects on bone health.
- Vitamin D’s role has been examined in the immune response to vaccines in studies looking at vitamin D levels as well as vitamin D signaling pathway polymorphisms (
- hepatitis B,
- BCG vaccine,
- meningococcal, etc.
- but the results have been variable, and such studies remain un-replicated to date.
- Higher HAI response to influenza vaccine was seen in vitamin D replete patients in a small study involving prostate cancer patients. There was suggestion of dose-response relationship of improved HAI response in HD patients who were receiving calcitriol in a separate study. Similarly, vitamin D deficiency was an independent negative predictor of seroconversion to hepatitis B vaccine in patients with CKD stages 3-5. Anti-tetanus specific IgG responses were noted to be higher in patients who received vitamin D supplementation compared to placebo, and this group had higher 25-(OH) D levels.
- Certain VDR and RXRA gene polymorphisms were associated with measles and rubella vaccine induced adaptive immune responses in two separate studies. A single study found an association with a particular VDR gene polymorphism with higher odds of non-response to hepatitis B vaccine.
- Animal studies have shown superior immunogenicity with vitamin D coadministered with inactivated polio vaccine, hepatitis B, and Hemophilus iniluenzae vaccines
- Elderly, obese and CKD patients have a higher incidence of vitamin D deficiency, and often have suboptimal vaccine responses, hence they remain important patient populations to study
- Future studies need to include patients with a wide range of vitamin D levels and vitamin D gene polymorphisms
- Mechanistic and systems biology-level studies are also needed, examining strategies of either boosting homeostatic levels, or co-administering vitamin D with vaccine.
Vitamin D’s non-skeletal actions, including immunomodulatory role, have been increasingly recognized. Of significance, many immune cells are able to synthesize a biologically active form of vitamin D from circulating 25-(OH) D with subsequent intracrine actions, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is broadly distributed. In this review, we discuss vitamin D’s potent role in innate and adaptive immune responses and published studies evaluating the impact of serum vitamin D, vitamin D gene pathway polymorphisms or empiric vitamin D supplementation on vaccine immunogenicity. We highlight existing knowledge gaps and propose the steps needed to advance the science and answer the question of whether vitamin D may prove valuable as a vaccine adjuvant for certain vaccines against infectious diseases.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- Factors That Influence the Immune Response to Vaccination - 2019 PDF VITAMIN occurs 51 times
- Vitamin D might augment COVID-19 vaccines – 5 papers as of Sept 2021
- Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines might be increased by Vitamin D – Aug 2021
- Vitamin D, C, A, and E, as well as Iron, Se, and Zinc each augment vaccine response – July 2021
- Vitamin D probably can both prevent Influenza and augment vaccine effectiveness – Aug 2018
- Vaccine response improved by Vitamin D (Shingles in this case) – Jan 2021
- Influenza Vaccination not benefited by lowish levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018
- Vaccine antibody generation not change with Vitamin D – 21 ng or 44 ng – RCT Feb 2019
- Dr. Coimbra interview covering Vitamin D, Magnesium, Folate, Vaccines - Oct 2018
- More than 1 hour of daily sun improved influenza vaccine by 35 percent (Vitamin D helps again) – Oct 2019
- Vitamin D Receptor is associated in over 40 autoimmune studies
- Breast Cancer reduces receptor and thus blocks Vitamin D to the cells – several studies
- Vitamin D Receptor pages in VitaminDWiki with CANCER in title 75 as of Nov 2021
The risk of 44 diseases at least double with poor Vitamin D Receptor as of Oct 2019
Vitamin D Receptor activation can be increased by any of: Resveratrol, Omega-3, Magnesium, Zinc, Quercetin, non-daily Vit D, Curcumin, intense exercise, Ginger, Essential oils, etc Note: The founder of VitaminDWiki uses 10 of the 13 known VDR activators
Virus and Vitamin D Receptor studies (24 as of Nov 2021)
- COVID-19 severity associated with 3 vitamin D genes – Oct 2021
- Poor Vitamin D receptor blocked Vitamin D from fighting avian influenza viruses (in mice) – July 2021
- Epstein-Barr is yet another virus that deactivates the Vitamin D receptor (COVID later suspected as well)– 2010
- COVID-19 symptoms and comorbidities associated with the type of Vitamin D Receptor – Oct 2021
- Enveloped virus infection (RSV, coronavirus, HIV, etc.) 1.5X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – meta-analysis Dec 2018
- COVID-19 outpatients getting Quercetin nanoemulsion had excellent outcomes (Q increased Vitamin D in cells) – RCT – June 2021
- A virus that most adults have (Cytomegalovirus) decreases the amount of Vitamin D which gets to the cells – Jan 2017
- SARS-CoV-2 virus alters the activation of over 100 vitamin D related genes in the lung – April 2021
- Common sense COVID-19 risk reduction - masks, social distancing, vitamin D - Oct 2020
- AI is examining 170,000 potential COVID-19 treatments, Vitamin D is one of only 6 found – Sept 4, 2020
- Vitamin D Receptor activation should reduce ARDS associated with COVID-19 - June 2020
- Dengue viral production decreased 1000X if activate Vitamin D Receptor (in lab) – July 2020
- Vitamin D, Quercetin, and Estradiol all increase vitamin D in cells and increase genes which reduce COVID-19 – May 21, 2020
- Quercetin and Vitamin D - Allies Against COVID-19
- Risk of enveloped virus infection is increased 50 percent if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis Dec 2018
- Hand, foot, and Mouth disease is 14X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Oct 2019
- Treating herpes reduced incidence of senile dementia by 10 X (HSV1 reduces VDR by 8X) – 2018
- Severe hand, foot, and mouth virus is 2.9 X more likely if poor Vitamin D receptor – Oct 2018
- Hepatitis B virus reduced by 5X the Vitamin D getting to liver cells in the lab – Oct 2018
- Some enveloped virus are 1.2 X more likely if have a poor Vitamin D Receptor -Aug 2018
- Severe Pertussis is 1.5 times more likely if poor vitamin D receptor – Feb 2016
- Dengue Fever associated with poor vitamin D receptor – July 2002
- Dengue virus 2X to 4X more likely if vitamin D receptor gene problems
Short URL = is.gd/vaxxd