Toggle Health Problems and D

23 COVID mitigation strategies: at least 6 of which increase Vitamin D in cells - Sept 2022

SARS-CoV-2: Recent Past and Present: An Unusual Review

African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol 2, Issue 2, Sept 2022 doi: 10.51483/AFJPS.2.2.2022.1-33
Joseph Kajima Mulengi1 Dept of Chemistry. Faculty of Sciences, University of Tlemcen, Algeria. E-mail: healthychem at gmail.com

PDF Table of Contents
Since SARS epidemic arose in 2002-2003, followed by the present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the World has been hit in every aspect of his life. Learning from our recent past is important and questions, quite a lot of questions are to be answered. The knowledge gathered about SARSs as a whole is growing and should be used to avoid similar situations. Our present is complex and real solution does not exist up to now. This unusual review is intended to describe existing solution, and suggests some intuitions of solutions by asking right questions to be answered. Not only chemistry as a science is concerned, but other aspects of life could be interested by this review.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

VitaminDWiki – COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D - studies, reports, videos

As of March 31, 2024, the VitaminDWiki COVID page had:  trial results,   meta-analyses and reviews,   Mortality studies   see related:   Governments,   HealthProblems,   Hospitals,  Dark Skins,   All 26 COVID risk factors are associated with low Vit D,   Fight COVID-19 with 50K Vit D weekly   Vaccines   Take lots of Vitamin D at first signs of COVID   166 COVID Clinical Trials using Vitamin D (Aug 2023)   Prevent a COVID death: 9 dollars of Vitamin D or 900,000 dollars of vaccine - Aug 2023
5 most-recently changed Virus entries

Some Vitamin D and COVID items in VitaminDWiki

33 studies in both categories Virus and Zinc

Note: Zinc increased the amount of Vitamin D getting to cells (VDR)
This list is automatically updated

9 studies with Quercetin in the VitaminDWiki title (Dec 2022)

Note: Quercetin increases the amount of vitamin D getting to cells (VDR)
This list is automatically updated

Items found: 11

Note: Zinc, Quercetin, Ozone, Hyperbaric Oxygen, Glutathione etc, all increase Vitamin D in cells

These supplements are all known to increase vitamin D in cells, they may have additional benefits

33 studies in both categories Virus and Zinc

Note: Zinc increased the amount of Vitamin D getting to cells (VDR)
This list is automatically updated

VitaminDwiki - Prevent a COVID death: 9 dollars of Vitamin D or 900,000 dollars of vaccine - Aug 2023 and cost-effectiveness of other mitigations


Other studies found supplements that fight COVID and incr4eased cellular Vitamin D

Magnesium and Virus 26 studies

This list is automatically updated


VitaminDWiki Virus pages with Melatonon in the title
This list is automatically updated

Items found: 2

- - - - -

  • Identification of a novel melatonin-binding nuclear receptor: Vitamin D receptor - Oct 2019 https://doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12618
    • Melatonin activates the Vitamin D Receptor
  • Effect of nighttime melatonin intake on vitamin D levels - May 2022 DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.81.EP63488
    • Vitamin D levels in blood increased about 2 ng after taking melatonin, Abstract not indicate over how many days


Ivermectin and COVID-19 - many studies in VitaminDWiki contains
Ivermectin raises levels of vitamin D (by decreasing CYP3A4) - 6 studies


COVID-19 risk reduced 4X by each of: Vitamin D, Omega-3, Curcumin, Zinc (each increases D in cells)


  • Alvarez, J. A., Chowdhury, R. and Jones, D. P. (2014). Vitamin d Status Is Independently Associated with Plasma Glutathione and Cysteine Thiol/Disulphide Redox Status In Adults. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford), 81(3), 458-466. doi: 10.1111/cen.12449.
  • Ahn, J. H., Oh, D. K. and Huh, J. W. (2019) . Sang-Bum Hong Vitamin C Alone Does Not Improve Treatment Outcomes in Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Journal of Thoracic Disease 11(4), 1562-1570. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2019.03.03
  • Andersen, K. G., Rambaut, A. and Lipkin, W. I. (2020). The Proximal Origin of SARS-CoV-2 Nature Medicine 26, 450-452. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0820-9.
  • Annweiler, C., Hanotte, B. and Grandin de l'Epreviere, C. (2020). Vitamin d and Survival in COVID-19 Patients: A Quasi-Experimental Study. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 204, 105771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105771.
  • Armogida, M., Nistico, R. and Mercuri, N.B. (2012). British Journal of Pharmacology, 166(4), 1211-1224. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01912.x
  • Arakawa, T. et al. (1976). Zinc Deficiency in Two Infants During Total Parenteral Alimentation For Diarrhea. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 29(2), 197-204. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/29.2.197.
  • Aronoff, B. L., Balla, G. A. and Finney, J. W. (1964). Regional Oxygenation in the Diagnosis and Management of Intra-abdominal and Retroperitoneal Neoplasms. Texas Reports on Biology and Medicine, 22, 106-109.
  • Arshad, S., Kilgore, P. and Chaudry, Z. S. (2020). COVID-19 Task Force Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, and Combination in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 97, 396-403. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.099.
  • Babior B. M., Takeuchi, C. and Ruedi, J. (2003). Investigating Antibody-catalyzed Ozone Generation By Human Neutrophils. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 100, 3031-3034. doi: 10.1073/ pnas.0530251100.
  • Bae, S., Kim, M-C. and Kim, J. Y. (2020). Effectiveness of Surgical and Cotton Masks in Blocking SARS-CoV-2: A Controlled Comparison in 4 Patients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 173(1), W22-W23.
  • Bao, B., Prasad, A. S. and Beck, F. W. J. (2010). Zinc decreases C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines in elderly subjects: a potential implication of Zinc as an atheroprotective agent. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91, 1634-1641. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28836.
  • Barabutis, N., Khangoora, V. and Marik, P. E. (2017). Hydrocortisone and Ascorbic Acid Synergistically Prevent and Repair Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pulmonary Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction. Chest, 152(5), 954-962. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/jxhest.2017.07.014.
  • Basha, S. L., Suresh, S. and Reddy V. V. (2020). Is the Shielding Effect of Cholecalciferol in SARS CoV-2 Infection Dependable? An Evidence Based Unraveling. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2020.10.005.
  • Beigel, J. H., Tomashek, K. and Dodd, L. E. (2020). Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Final Report New England Journal of Medicine, 383, 1813-1826. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2007764.
  • Ben-Arye, E. Dudai, N., and Eini, A. (2011). Treatment of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Primary Care: A Randomized Study Using Aromatic Herbs. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Art. 10.690346. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/690346.
  • Bocci, V. and Paulesu, L. (1990). Studies on the Biological Effects of Ozone 1. Induction of interferon gamma on Human Leucocytes. Haematologica. 75, 510-515. PMID: 2129118
  • Boss A., Bishop K. S., and Marlow G. (2016). Evidence to Support The Anti-cancer Effect Of OLEAnd Future Directions. Nutrients, 8, 513. doi: 10.3390/nu8080513
  • Brooks, S., Webster, R. K., and Smith L. L. E. (2020). The Psychological Impact of Quarantine and How to Reduce It: Rapid Review of The Evidence. Lancet. 395, 912-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0140- 6736(20)30460-8.
  • Brownstein, D., Ng, R. and Rowen, R. (2020). A Novel Approach to Treating Covid-19 Using Nutritional and Oxidative Therapies. Science, Public Health Policy and the Law, 2, 4-22. Clinical and Translational Research.
  • Campello, E., Navalesi, P. and Simioni, P. (2020). COVID-19-Related Severe Hypercoagulability in Patients Admitted to Intensive Care Unit for Acute Respiratory Failure. Thrombosis Haemostasis Journa,l 120(6), 998-1000. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1710018.
  • Cao, B., Wang, Y. and Wen, D. (2020). A Trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001282.
  • Cardozo, T. and Veazy, R. (2020). Informed Consent Disclosure To Vaccine Trial Subjects of Risk of COVID-19 Vaccines Worsening Clinical Disease. International Journal of Clinical Practice, October 28, https://doi.org/ 10.1111/ijcp.13795
  • Carr, A.C. (2019). Vitamin C administration in the Critically Ill: A Summary of Recent Meta-analyses. Critical Care, 23, 265. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-019-2538-y.
  • Castillo, M.E., Costa, E.L.M. and Barrios, J.M. (2020). Effect of Calcifediol Treatment and Best Available Therapy Versus Best Available Therapy on Intensive Care Unit Admission and Mortality Among Patients Hospitalized For Covid-19: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Study. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 203, 105751. https://doi.org/10.1016/josbmb.2020.105751.
  • CDC (2020). Provisional Death Counts for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). https: //www.cdc.gov/ nchs/nvss/vsrr/covid_weekly/index.htm. accessed November 22.
  • CDC (2020, April 3). S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Recommendation Regarding the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community Based Transmission.
  • Chartier, M., Cassir, N. and Million, M. (2018). Efficacité comparée des traitements actuellement recommandés et analyse des facteurs de risque de récidive des épisodes de colite à Clostridium difficile. Médecine et maladies infectieuses 48(4), S43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2018.04.113
  • Chen, K-C., Hsu, W-H. and Ho, J-Y. (2018). Flavonoids Luteolin and Quercetin Inhibit RPS19 and Contributes to Metastasis of Cancer Cells Through c-Myc Reduction. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 26, 1180 e1191. https://doi.org/10.10167j.jfda.2018.01.012
  • Chu, C., Cheng, V. and Hung, I. (2004). Role of Lopinavir/Ritonavir in The Treatment of SARS: Initial Virological and Clinical Findings. Thorax, 59, 252-256. doi: 10.1136/thorax.2003.012658.
  • Chughtai, A.A., Stelzer-Braid, S. and Rawlinson, W. (2019). Contamination by Respiratory Viruses on Outer Surface of Medical Masks Used By Hospital Healthcare Workers. BMC Infectious Diseases. 19(1), 491-498. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4109-x.
  • Cinati, J., and Morgenstern, B. (2003). Glycyrrhizins, an Active Component of Liquorice Roots, and Replication of SARS-Associated Coronavirus. Lancet, 361, 2045-2046. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13615-X
  • Clemens, T., Popham, F. and Boyle, P. (2015). What is the Effect of Unemployment on All-cause Mortality? A Cohort Study Using Propensity Score Matching. Eur J Public Health. 25(1), 115-121. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ cku136.
  • Cohen, J. (2020). Update: Here's What is Known about Trump's COVID-19 Treatment. https:// www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/10/heres-what-known-about-president-donald-trump-s-covid-19- treatment. Accessed October 6.
  • Cowling, B.J., Fang, V.J. and Nishiura, H. (2012). Increased Risk of Non-influenza Respiratory Virus Infections Associated With Receipt of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine. Clinical Infectious Diseases 54(12), 1778-1783. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis307.
  • Dabbagh-Bazarbachi, H., Clergeaud, G. and Quesada, I.M. (2014). Zinc Ionophore Activity of Quercetin and Epigallocatechin-gallate: From Hepa 1-6 Cells to a Liposome Model. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 62(32), 8085-8093. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf5014633.
  • De Flora, S., Grassi, C. and Carati, L. (1997). Attenuation of iNfluenza-like Symptomatology and Improvement of Cell-mediated Immunity With Long-term N-acetylcysteine Treatment. European Respiratory Journal, 10, 1535-1541. doi: 10.1183/09031936.97.10071535.
  • Derwand, R. and Scholz, M. (2020). Does Zinc Supplementation Enhance The Clinical Efficacy Of Chloroquine / Hydroxychloroquine To Win Todays Battle Against COVID-19? Medical Hypotheses, 142, 109815. https:/ /doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109815
  • Diet, H. (1932). Nutrition and Infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 207, 637-648. doi: 10.1056/ NEJM193210132071501.
  • Du, L., He, Y. and Zhou, Y. (2009). The Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-a Target for Vaccine and Therapeutic Development. Nature Reviews Microbiology 7(3), 226-236.
  • Dubert, M., Visseaux, B. and Isernia, V. (2020). Case Report Study of the First Five COVID-19 Patients Treated with Remdesivir in France. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 98, 290-293. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.ijid.2020.06.093.
  • Eby, G.A., Davis, D.R. and Halcomb, W.W. (1984) . Reduction in Duration of Common Colds By Zinc Gluconate Lozenges in a Double-blind Study. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, 1, 20-24. doi: 10.1128/aac.25.1.20.
  • Edwards, E. (2020). Pfizer's Covid-19 Vaccine Promising, But Many Questions Remain. NBC News, November 9, 9:26 PM CET / Updated Nov. 10, 2020, 3:51 PM CET. Accessed on November 19.
  • Euronews (2020). www.euronews.com April 8, 2020. Is Sweden's COVID-19 Strategy Working?
  • Farr, C.H. (1987). The Therapeutic Use of Intravenous Hydrogen Peroxide (Monograph). Genesis Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73139, Jan. 1987 http://www.foodgrade- hydrogenperoxide.com/ sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/ TherapeuticUseOfHPFarr.pdf.
  • Farr, C.H. (1992) Oxidative Therapy. http://www.foodgrade-hydrogenperoxide.com/ sitebuildercontent/ sitebuilderfiles / OxidativeTherapyByFarr.pdf.
  • Fauci, A.S. (2020). https://principia-scientific.com/smokmg-gun-dr-faud-admits-covid-test-has-fatal-flaw/ Published on November 7, 2020. Written by Jon Rappoport
  • Feng, W., Newbigging, A.M. and Le, C. (2020). Molecular Diagnosis of COVID-19: Challenges and Research Needs. Analytical Chemistry 92, 15, 10196-10209. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c02060.
  • Finney, J.W., Jay, B.E. and Race, G. J. (1966). Removal of Cholesterol and Other Lipids From Experimental Animal and Human Atheromatous Arteries By Dilute Hydrogen Peroxide. Angiology 17, 223-228. doi: 10.1177/000331976601700402.
  • Fonseca, S.N.S., Queiroz de Souza, A. and Wolkoff, A.G. (2020). Risk of Hospitalization for Covid-19 Outpatients Treated with Various Drug Regimens in Brazil: Comparative Analysis. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 38, 101906 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101906
  • Frontera, J.A., Rahimian, J.O. and Yaghi, S. (2020). Treatment with Zinc is Associated With Reduced inhospital Mortality Among COVID-19 Patients: A Multi-Center Cohort Study. ResearchSquare. doi: https:/ /doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-94509/v1.
  • Gao, J., Tian, Z. and Yang, X. (2020). Breakthrough: Chloroquine Phosphate Has Shown Apparent Efficacy In Treatment of COVID-19 Associated Pneumonia in Clinical Studies. BioScience Trends P1-P2. doi: 10.5582/ bst.2020.01047.
  • García-Albéniz, X., del Amo, J. and Polo, R. (2020). Brief Communication: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials of Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention of COVID-19 MedRxiv preprint October 03. https: / / doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.29.20203869
  • Gates, B. (2020). Gates' Notes: The Vaccine Race Explained. What You Need To Know About The Covid-19 Vaccine. April 30, 10 minute read. www.gatesnotes.com. Accessed June 29, 2020.
  • Geiler, J., Michaelis, M. and Naczk, P. (2010). N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) Inhibits Virus Replication and Expression Of Pro-inflammatory Molecules In A549 Cells Infected With Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza A Virus. Biochemical Pharmacology, 79(3), 413-420). doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.bcp.2009.08.025.
  • Gilling, D.H. (2014). Antiviral Efficacy and Mechanism of Oregano Essential Oil and Its Primary Component Carvacrol Against Murine Norovirus. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 11665, 1149-1163.
  • Goldman, J.D., Lye, D.C.B., and Hui, S. (2020).. Remdesivir for 5 or 10 Days in Patients with Severe Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine 383, 1827-1837. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2015301.
  • Gonzalez-Vogel, M., Talló-Parra, M. and Herrera-Fernandez, V. (2020). Low Zinc Levels at Clinical Admission Associates With Poor Outcomes in COVID-19. MedRxiv October 11, doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/ 2020.10.07.20208645.
  • Grant, W.B., Lahore, H. and McDonnel, S.L. (2020). Evidence that Vitamin d Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths. Nutrients 12, 988. doi: 10.3390/nu12040988.
  • Grein, J., Ohmagari, N. and Shin, D. (2020). Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid- 19. New England Journal of Medicine 382, 2327-2336. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2007016.
  • Grifoni, A., Weiskopf, D. and Ramirez, S. I. (2020). Targets of T-Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals. Cell 181(7), 1489-1501.e15. doi: 10.1016/ j.cell.2020.05.015.
  • Grucza, K., Cholbinski, P. and Kwiatkowska, D. (2019). Effects of Supplementation with Glutathione and its Precursors on Athlete Performance. Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technological Research. 12(4), 94349441. Doi: 10.26717/BJSTR.2019.12.002293.
  • Haseltine, W. (2020). First COVID-19 Vaccine 90% Effective? in https://articles.mercola.com/ sites/articles/ archive/2020/11/18/first-covid-19-vaccine-90- percent-effective. aspx?ui=2ab97342865f478e7437 94d718df4b4fb9003d4d601d0119e4fbce1498231f19&cidsource=dnl& cid_medium =email&cid_ content= art1HL&cid= 2020 1118 &mid=DM723337&rid=1014356389. Accessed November 20, 2020.
  • Haseltine, W. (2020). Covid-19 Vaccine Protocols Reveal That Trials Are Designed To Succeed. Forbes September 23, 2020. Accessed on November 19.
  • HCQ is Effective for COVID-19 When Used Early: Analysis of 139 Studies. Covid Analysis, October 20, 2020 (V ersion 14, November 12, 2020). https: //hcqmeta.com. Accessed November 19, 2020.
  • Heyneman, C.A. (1996). Zinc Deficiency And Taste Disorders. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 30(2), 186-187. doi: 10.1177/106002809603000215.
  • Hemila, H. (2017). Zinc Lozenges and the Common Cold: A Meta-analysis Comparing Zinc Acetate and Zinc Gluconate, and the Role Of Zinc Dosage. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Open. 8(5), 2054270417694291. doi: 10.1177/2054270417694291.
  • Hemila, H. (2017). Vitamin C and Infections. Nutrients, 9, 339; doi: 10.3390/nu9040339 and references therein.
  • Herbold, K., Flehmig, B. and Botzenhart, K. (1989). Comparison of Ozone Inactivation, in Flowing Water, of Hepatitis A virus, Poliovirus 1, and Indicator Organisms. Applied Environmental Microbiology 55, 29492953. doi: 10.1128/AEM.55.11.2949-2953.1989.
  • Hoever, G., Baltina, L. and Michaelis, M. (2005). Antiviral Activity of Glycyrrhizic Derivatives Against SARS- Coronavirus. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 48(4), 1256-1259. doi: 10.1021/jm0493008.
  • H.R.5546 - National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986. 99th Congress (1985-1986). (2020) https:// www.congress.gov/bill/99th-congress/house-bill/5546. Accessed on December 13.
  • Health and Human Services. Office of the Secretary (2020). Federal Register/Vol. 85, N° 52/Tuesday, March 17, Notices. Declaration Under the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act for Medical Countermeasures Against COVID-19. https: //www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2020-03-17/pdf/ 2020-05484.pdf. Accessed on September 17.
  • Hunt, C., Chakravorty, N.K. and Annan, G. (1994). The Clinical Effects of Vitamin C Supplementation in Elderly Hospitalised Patients with Acute Respiratory Infections. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition research, 64(3), 212-219. PMID: 7814237.
  • Hsiao, P-C., Hsieh, Y-H. and Chow, J-M. (2013). Hispolon Induces Apoptosis through JNK1/2-Mediated Activation of a Caspase-8, -9, and -3-Dependent Pathway in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Cells and Inhibits AML Xenograft Tumor Growth in Vivo. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 61, 10063100073. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf402956m.
  • Ibrahim, H., Perl, A. and Smith, D. (2020). Therapeutic Blockade of Inflammation in Severe COVID-19 Infection with Intravenous N-acetylcysteine. Clinical Immunology 219 108544. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j. clim .2020.108544.
  • International Hyperbaric Association (2020). Demonstration Report on Inclusion of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Treatment of COVID-19 severe Cases. February 27. https://www.ihausa.org/covid19- hyperbaric-therapy. Accessed March 15.
  • Jain, S. K., Micinski, D. and Huning, L. (2014). Vitamin d and L-Cysteine Levels Correlate Positively with GSH and Negatively With Insulin Resistance Levels in the Blood Of Type 2 Diabetic Patients. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68(10), 1148-1153.
  • Jothmani, D., Kailasam, E. and Danielraj, S. (2020). COVID-19: Poor Outcomes in Patients with Zinc Deficiency. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 100, 343-349. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.014.
  • Kampf, G., Todt, D. and Pfaender, S. (2020). Persistence of Coronaviruses On Inanimate Surfaces and Their Inactivation With Biocidal Agents. Journal of Hospital Infection 104, 246-251. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022.
  • Khan, I.M., Shabbier, A. and Naeemullah, S. (2014). Efficacy of Vitamin C in Reducing Duration of Severe Pneumonia in Children. Journal of Rawalpindi Medical College (JRMC), 18(1), 55-57. https:// www.journalrmc.com/index.php/JRMC/article/view/ 381.
  • Kaiser, N., Birkholz, D. and Colomban, S. (2013). A New Method for the Preparative Isolation of Chlorogenic Acid Lactones from Coffee and Model Roasts of 5-Caffeoylquinic Acid. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 61, 6937-6941. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf4011356.
  • Kim, Y., Kim, H. and Bae, S. (2013). Vitamin C Is an Essential Factor on the Anti-viral Immune Responses through the Production of Interferon-a/a at the Initial Stage of Influenza A Virus (H3N2) Infection. Immune Network, 13(2), 70-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.4110/in.2013.13.2.70.
  • Krammer, F. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines in Development. Nature, 586, 516-527. https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41586-020-2798-3.
  • Kurugol, Z., Akilli, M. and Bayram, N (2006). The Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effectiveness of Zinc Sulphate on Common Cold in Children. Acta Paediatrica, 95(10), 1175-81. doi: 10.1080/08035250600603024.
  • Ladapo, J.A., McKinnon, J.E. and McCullough, P.A. (2020). Randomized Controlled Trials of Early Ambulatory Hydroxychloroquine in the Prevention of COVID-19 Infection, Hospitalization, and Death: MetaAnalysis. MedRxiv preprint September 30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.30.20204693.
  • Lam, S., Lombardi, A. and Ouanounou, A. (2020). COVID-19: A Review of the Proposed Pharmacological Treatments. European Journal of Pharmacology, 886, 173451. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.ejphar.2020.173451.
  • Langlois, S. (2020). Surgeon General Wants You To Stop Buying Masks To Protect Yourself From Coronavirus: 'They are NOT effective." MarketWatch Mar. 1.
  • Larsen, J.R., Martin, M.R. and Martin J.D. (2020). Modeling the Onset of Symptoms of COVID-19. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, Article.
  • Lee, J.E. and Saphire, E.O. (2009). Ebolavirus Glycoprotein Structure and Mechanism of Entry. Future Virology, 4, 621-635. doi: 10.2217/fvl.09.56.
  • Lee, M., Son, M. and Ryu, E. (2015). Quercetin-induced Apoptosis Prevents EBV Infection. Oncotarget, 6(14), 12603-12624. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.3687.
  • Lee-Huang., Zhang, L. and Huang, P.L. (2003). Anti-HIV activity of Olive Leaf Extract (OLE) and Modulation of Host Gene Expression by HIV-1 Infection and OLE Treatment. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 307, 1029-1037. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)01292-0
  • Leong, P.K. and Ko, K.M. (2016). Induction of the Glutathione Antioxidant Response/Glutathione Redox Cycling By Nutraceuticals: Mechanism of Protection Against Oxidant-induced Cell Death. Journal of Nutraceuticals and Food Sciences, 1, 1-9.
  • Li, Y., Yao, J. and Han, C. (2016). Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity. Nutrients, 8(3), 167. doi: 10.3390/ nu8030167.
  • Lin, Y-S., Tsai, P-H. and Kandaswami, C.C. (2011). Effects of Dietary Flavonoids, Luteolin, And Quercetin on The Reversal of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In A431 Epidermal Cancer Cells. Cancer Science, 102(10), 1829-1839. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2011.02035.
  • Liu, Q, Zhou, Y.H. and Yang, Z.Q. (2016). The Cytokine Storm of Severe Influenza And Development of Immunomodulatory Therapy. Cell and Molecular Immunology, 13, 3-10. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2015.74.
  • Lo, M.K., Jordan, R. and Arvey, A. (2017). GS- 5734 and Its Parent Nucleoside Analog Inhibit Filo-, Pneumo-, and Paramyxoviruses. Scientific Reports, 7. doi: 10.1038/srep43395.
  • Lopez, L., Riffle, A. and Pike, S. (2008). Importance of Conserved Cysteine Residues in the Coronavirus Envelope Protein. Journal of Virology, 82, 3000-3010. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01914-07.
  • Ma, S.C., He, Z.D. and Deng, X.L. (2001). In Vitro Evaluation of Secoiridoid Glucosides from the Fruits of Ligustrum lucidum as Antiviral Agents. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo). 49(11), 1471-1473. doi: 10.1248/cpb.49.1471.
  • Madu, I.G., Belouzard, S. and Whittaker, G.R. (2009). SARS-Coronavirus Spike S2 Domain Flanked By Cysteine Residues C822 And C833 Is Important For Activation of Membrane Fusion. Virology, 393, 265-271. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2009.07.038.
  • Magar, R.T. and Sohng, J.K. (2020). A Review on Structure, Modifications And Structure-activity Relation Of Quercetin And Its Derivatives Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30(1), 11-20. https://doi.org/ 10.4014/jmb.1907.07003 and references therein.
  • Malin, J.J., Suarez, I. and Priesner, V. (2020). Remdesivir Against COVID-19 and Other Viral Diseases Clinical Microbiology Review 34(1), e00162-20. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00162-20.
  • Maret, W. and Sandstead, H.H. (2006). Zinc Requirements And The Risks And Benefits of Zinc Supplementation. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 20, 3-18. doi: 10.1016j.jtemb.2006.01.006.
  • Marik, P.E. (2018). Hydrocortisone, Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine (HAT Therapy) for the Treatment of Sepsis. Focus on Ascorbic Acid Nutrients. 10, 1762-1776. doi:10.3390/nu10111762
  • Marini, J.J. and Gattinoni, L. (2020). Management of COVID-19 Respiratory Distress. Journal of American Medical Association, 323(22), 2329-2330. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6825.
  • Martineau, A., Jolliffe, D.A. and Hooper, R.L. (2017). Vitamin d Supplementation To Prevent Acute Respiratory Tract Infections: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data. British Medical Journal, 356, i6583 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i6583.
  • Medrix Content (2020). Repurposed Antiviral Drugs for COVID-19-Interim WHO SOLIDARITY Trial Results. Retrieved November 04 from https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.10.15.20209817v1.
  • Mehra, M.R., Desai, S.S. and Ruschitzka. (2007). Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine with or without a Macrolide forTreatment of COVID-19: A Multinational Registry Analysis. www.thelancet.com 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31180-6.
  • Menachery, V., Yount, B. and Debbink, K. (2015). A SARS-like Cluster of Circulating Bat Coronaviruses Shows Potential For Human Emergence. Nature Medicine 21, 1508-1513. https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.3985.
  • Mengist, H.M., Fan, X. and Jin, T. (2020). Designing of Improved Drugs for COVID-19: Crystal Structure of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Mpro. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5, 67. https://doi.org/10.1038/ s41392-020-0178-y.
  • Mercola. (2020). Iron and Vegetable Oil Are A Deadly Combo. Retrieved from https: / / articles.mercola.com/ sites/articles/archive/2020/12/02/pufas-iron-intake-and-dpn.aspx?ui=2ab97342865f478e74379 4d718df4b4fb 9003d4d601
  • d0119e4fbce1498231f19&cid_source=dnl&cid_medium=email&cid_content=art1HL&cid=20201 202_HL2&mid=DM735759&rid=1025185910. Accessed December 2.
  • Mercola. (2020). How Nebulize Hydrogen Peroxide Helps Respiratory Infections. Retrieved from https: / / articles.mercola.com / sites / articles / archive /2020/09/13/how-to-nebulize-hydrogen-peroxide .aspx. Accessed on September 13, 2020.
  • Mercola. (2020). Former Pfizer Science Official Reveals Great COVID-19 scam. Retrieved from https:// articles.mercola.com / sites / articles / archive / 2020/11/25/michael-yeadon-pfizer-coronavirus-scam.aspx?ui=2ab97342865f478e743794d718df4b4fb9003d4d601d0119e4fbce1498231f19 &cid_source=dnl&cid_medium=email&cid_content=art1HL&cid= 20201125& mid=DM729339&rid =1019734751. Accessed November 25.
  • Mercola. (2020). First COVID-19 Vaccine 90% Effective? Retrieved from https://articles.mercola.com/sites/ articles/archive/2020/11/18/first-covid-19-vaccine-90-percent-effective.aspx?ui=2ab973428 65f478e743794d718df4b4fb9003d4d601d0119e4fbce1498231f19&cid_source = dnl &cid_medium=email&cid_content =art1HL&cid=20201118&mid=DM723337&rid=1014356389. Accessed November 19.
  • Million, M., Gautret, P. and Colson, P. (2020). Clinical Efficacy Of Chloroquine Derivatives In Covid-19 Infection: Comparative Meta-analysis Between The Big Data And The Real World. New Microbe and New Infections, 38, 100709. https://doi.org/10.1016/3-.nmni.2020.100709.
  • Mirazimi, A., Mousavi-Jazi, M. and Sundqvist, V.A. (1999). Free Thiol Groups Are Essential For Infectivity of Human Cytomegalovirus. Journal of General Virology, 80, 2861-2865. doi: 10.1099/0022-1317-80-11-2861.
  • Montagnier, L. (2020a). A Nobel Laureate Said the New Coronavirus Was Made in a Lab. He's Wrong. https:/ / science.thewire.in/ the-sciences/luc-montagnier-coronavirus-wuhan-lab-pseudoscience. Accessed on July 17, 2020.
  • Montagnier L. (2020b). The Coronavirus Is Man Made According to Luc Montagnier the Man Who Discovered HIV. https: / / www.gilmorehealth.com / chinese-coronavirus-is-a-man-made-virus-accordmg-to-luc- montagnier-the-man-who-discovered-hiv. accessed October 25.
  • Morris, G., Anderson, G. and Dean, O. (2014). The Glutathione System: A New Drug Target in Neuroimmune Disorders. Molecular Neurobiology. 50, 1059-1084. doi: 10.1007/s12035-014-8705-x.
  • Moskowitz, A., Andersen, L. and Huang, D.T. (2018). Ascorbic Acid, Corticosteroids, and Thiamine in sepsis: A Review of the Biologic Rationale and the Present State of Clinical Evaluation. Critical Care 22, 283-289. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-2217-4.
  • Mubarak, A., Bondonno, C. and Liu, A.H. (2012). Acute Effects of Chlorogenic Acid on Nitric Oxide Status, Endothelial Function, and Blood Pressure in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Trial. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 60, 9130-9136. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf303440j
  • Pani, A., Lauriola, M. and Romandini, A. (2020). Macrolides and Viral Infections: Focus on Azithromycin In Covid-19 Pathology. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 56(2), 106053. doi: 10.1016/ j.ijantimicag.2020.106053 and references therein.
  • Parsanathan, R. and Jain, S. K. (2019). Glutathione Deficiency Induces Epigenetic Alterations of Vitamin d Metabolism Genes In The Livers of High-fat Diet-fed Obese Mice. Scientific Reports 9(1), 14784. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-51377-5.
  • Pedersen; P.L. (2007). The Cancer Cell's "Power Plants" As Promising Therapeutic Targets: An Overview. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, 39, 1-12. DOI: 10.1007/s10863-007-9070-5.
  • Peeples, L. (2020). Avoiding Pitfalls in the Pursuit of a COVID-19 Vaccine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(15), 8218-8221. www.pnas/cgi/doi/10.1073/ pnas.2005456117
  • Pillaiyar ,T., Manickam, M. and Namasivayam, V. (2016). An Overview of Severe Acute Respiratory SyndromeCoronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3CL Protease Inhibitors: Peptidomimetics and Small Molecule Chemotherapy. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 59, 6595-6628
  • Polonikov, A. (2020). Endogenous Deficiency of Glutathione as the Most Likely Cause of Serious Manifestations and Death in COVID-19 Patients. ACS Infectious Diseases, 6(7), 1558-1562. doi: 10.1021/ acsinfecdis.0c00288.
  • Prasad, A.S. (2004). Zinc Deficiency: Its Characterization and Treatment. Metallic Ions and Biological Systems, 41, 103-137. PMID: 15206115.
  • Prasad, A.S., Beck, F.W.J. and Bao, B. (2007). Zinc Supplementation Decreases Incidence of Infections In The Elderly: Effect of Zinc on Generation of Cytokines and Oxidative Stress. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 837-844. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/85.3.837.
  • Prasad, A.S., Halsted J.A. and Nadimi, M. (1961). Syndrome of Iron Deficiency Anemia, Hepatosplenomegaly, Hypogonadism, Dwarfism And Geophagia. American Journal of Medicine, 31, 532- 546. doi: 10.1016/ 0002-9343(61)90137-1.
  • Prasad, A.S., Miale, A. and Farid, Z. (1963). Zinc Metabolism In Patients With The Syndrome of Iron Deficiency Anemia, Hepatosplenomegaly, Hypogonadism, And Dwarfism. Journal ofLaboratory Clinical Medicine, 61, 537-549. PMID: 13985937.
  • Prasad, A.S., Beck, W.J. and Bin Bao. (2007). Zinc Supplementation Decreases Incidence of Infections In The Elderly: Effect of Zinc on Generation of Cytokines and Oxidative Stress, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 837-844. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/85.3.837.
  • Prasad A.S., Halsted J.A. and Nadimi, M. (1961). Syndrome of Iron Deficiency Anemia, Hepatosplenomegaly, Hypogonadism, Dwarfism And Geophagia. American Journal of Medicine, 31, 532- 546. doi: 10.1016/ 0002-9343(61)90137-1.
  • Prodromos, C. and Rumschlag. T. (2020). Hydroxychloroquine is Effective, And Consistently So When Provided Early, For Covid-19: A Systematic Review. New Microbe and New Infections, 38, 100776. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100776.
  • Pruijssers, A. and Denison, M.R. (2019). Nucleoside Analogues For The Treatment Of Coronavirus Infections. Current Opinion in Virology, 35, 57-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2019.04.002
  • Qiu, X., Kroeker, A. and He, S. (2016). Prophylactic Efficacy of Quercetin 3-a-O-D-Glucoside against Ebola Virus Infection Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 60(9), 5182-5188. doi:10.1128/AAC.00 307-16.
  • Rahimian, J.O., Yaghi, S. and Liu, M. (2020). Treatment with Zinc Is Associated With Reduced In-hospital Mortality Among COVID-19 Patients: A Multi-Center Cohort Study. ResearchSquare, 26, rs.3.rs-94509 doi: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-94509/ v1
  • Raoult. (2020). « R. Didier Raoult Chloroquine : Didier Raoult dénonce une "étude foireuse" ». Capital.fr https: / / www.capital.fr/economie-politique / chloroquine-didier-raoult-denonce-une-etude-foireuse- 1370900.
  • RecoveryV7.0 2020-06-18. ISRCTN50189673 (2020). A Randomised Trial of Treatments to Prevent Death In Patients Hospitalised with COVID-19 (coronavirus). Accessed November 18. https:// www.recoverytrial.net/files/recovery-protocol-v7-0-2020-06-18.pdf.
  • REMAP-CAP. (2020). Hydroxychloroquine Or Chloroquine With Or Without A Macrolide For Treatment Of COVID-19: A Multinational Registry Analysis. https://www.lifespan.io/road-maps/the-covid-19- roadmap/remap-cap-hydroxchloroquine.
  • Rink, L. and Gabriel, P. (2000). Zinc and the Immune System. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 59, 541-552. doi: 10.1017/s0029665100000781.
  • Rojas, A., Del Campo, J.A., and Clement, S. (2016). Effect of Quercetin on Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle: From Viral to Host Targets. Nature/Scientific Reports, 6, 31777. doi: 10.1038/srep31777.
  • Ryser, H., Levy, E. and Mandel, R. (1994). Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection By Agents That Interfere With Thiol-disulfide Interchange Upon Virus-receptor Interaction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 91, 4559-4563. doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.10.4559.
  • Ryu, Y.B., Jeong, H.J. and Kim, J.H. (2010). Biflavonoids from Torreya Nucifera Displaying SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) Inhibition. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 18(22), 7940-7947. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.09.035.
  • Rowen, R.J. and Robins, H. (2020). A Plausible "Penny" Costing Effective Treatment for Corona Virus - Ozone Therapy. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, 6, 113. doi: 10.23937/2474-3658/1510113.
  • Roy, D., Wong, P.K., Engelbrecht, R.S. and Chian, E.S. (1981). Mechanism of Enteroviral Inactivation By Ozone. Applied Environmental Microbioliogy, 41, 718-723. doi: 10.1128/ AEM.41.3.718-723.1981.
  • Sardi, B. (2020). Emergency Room Doctor Doesn't Realize Major Signs & Symptoms Of Covid-19 Coronavirus Cases Match Evidences Of Zinc Deficiency. www.KnowledgeofHealth.com. The Vitamin Answer Man, April 20.
  • Saul, A.W. (2007). Hidden In Plain Sight: The Pioneering Work of Frederick Robert Klenner. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 22(1), 31-38.
  • Schoeman, D. and Fielding, B.C. (2019). Coronavirus Envelope Protein: Current Knowledge. Virology Journal, 16, 69. doi: 10.1186/s12985-019-1182-0.
  • Scholz, M., Derwand, R. and Zelenko, V. (2020). COVID-19 Outpatients - Early risk-stratified Treatment with Zinc Plus Low Dose Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin: A Retrospective Case Series Study. Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106214.
  • Shin, G.A. and Sobsey, M.D. (2003). Reduction of Norwalk virus, Poliovirus 1, and Bacteriophage MS2 by Ozone Disinfection of Water. Applied Environmental Microbioliogy, 69, 3975-3978. doi: 10.1128/ AEM.69.7.3975-3978.2003.
  • Sies, H. and Jones, D P. (2020). Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) as pleiotropic physiological signaling agents. Nature Review of Molecular Cell Biology 21, 363-383. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41580-020-0230-3.
  • Simmer, K. and Thompson, R.P. (1985). Zinc in the Fetus and Newborn. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica Supplement, 319, 158-163. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1985.tb10126.x
  • Suryanarayan, S. (2020). Nature Journal Adds "Editor's Note" Highlighting Concerns About The Reliability Of Study Linking Pangolin Coronaviruses To Origin of SARS-CoV-2. https:/ / www.nature.com/articles/ s41586-020-2313-x. accessed November 15, 2020.
  • te Velthuis, A.J.W., Sjoerd, H.F. and van den Worm. (2010). Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These Viruses in Cell Culture. Plos Pathogens, 6(11), e1001176. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176.
  • Tirado, S.M.C., and Yoon, K-J. (2003). Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Virus Infection And Disease. Viral Immunology, 16(1), 69-86. doi: 10.1089/088282403763635465.
  • Tummicliffe (1987). The Therapeutic Use of Intravenous Hydrogen Peroxide (Monograph). Genesis Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73139. http://www.foodgrade-hydrogenperoxide.com/sitebuildercontent/ sitebuilderfiles / HydrogenPeroxideInjectionsByFarr.pdf
  • Urschel, H.C. (1967). Cardiovascular Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide: Current Status. Diseases of the Chest, 51, 180-192. doi: 10.1378/chest.51.2.180.
  • U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) (2019). Zinc: Fact Sheets for Consumer. Office of Dietary supplements. December 10, https://ods.od.nih.gov/pdf/factsheets/Zinc-Consumer.pdf. Accessed January 15, 2020.
  • van Leeuwen, R., Boekhoorn, S. and Vingerling, J.R. (2005). Dietary Intake of Antioxidants And Risk of Age- related Macular Degeneration. Journal of the American Medical Association 294, 3101-3107. doi: 10.1001/ jama.294.24.3101.
  • Walker, S. E., Jazzetta, J. and Law, S. (2019). Administration of Intravenous Ascorbic Acid-Practical Considerations for Clinicians. Nutrients 11, 1994. doi:10.3390/nu11091994.
  • Wang, B., Aw, T.Y. and Stokes, K.Y. (2018). N-acetylcysteine Attenuates Systemic Platelet Activation and Cerebral Vessel Thrombosis in Diabetes. Redox Biology, 14, 218-228. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2017.09.005.
  • Wang, C.J., Ng., C.Y. and Brook, R.H. (2020). Response to COVID-19 in Taiwan: Big Data Analytics, New Technology, And Proactive Testing. Journal of American Medical Association. Published online March 3. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3151.
  • Wang, Y., Zhang, D. and Du, G. (2020). Remdesivir in Adults With Severe Covid-19: A Randomised, Doubleblind, Placebo-controlled, Multicentre Trial. Lancet, 395, 1569-1578. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0140- 6736(20)31022-9.
  • Weng, J-R., Lin, C-S. and Lai, H-C. (2019). Antiviral activity of Sambucus FormosanaNakai Ethanol Extract And Related Phenolic Acid Constituents Against Human Coronavirus NL63 Virus Research. 273, 197767. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.197767.
  • Wintergerst, E.S., Maggini, S. and Hornig, D.H. (2007). Contribution of Selected Vitamins And Trace Elements To Immune Function. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 51, 301-323. doi: 10.1159/000107673.
  • Wolff, G.G. (2020). Influenza Vaccination And Respiratory Virus Interference Among Department of Defense Personnel During The 2017-2018 Influenza Season. Vaccine, 38, 350-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.vaccine.2019.10.005.
  • WHO (2020). Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic. https://www.who.int/health-topics/ coronavirus#tab=tab_1. Daily updates and accessed.
  • WHO (2020). Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Advice For The Public: When And How To Use Masks. April 6. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report -74. Accessed April 15.
  • WHO (2020). Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Retrieved from https: / / www.who.int / docs / default-source / coronaviruse / who-china-j oint-mission-on-covid-19- final-report.pdf. Accessed on April 19.
  • WHO (2020). Update May 4, 2020, COVID-19 Strategic Response Plan in the WHO African Region.Pdf. retrieved from https://www.afro.who.int/publications/covid-19-strategic-response-plan-who-african-region. Accessed on May 10.
  • WHO (2020). Descriptive Analysis of Covid-19-related Spontaneous Reports From Vigibase: Interim Results. August. Report date: 08-26. Accessed November 13, 2020. Remdesivir page 8. Retrieved from https: / / www.who.int/medicines/regulation/medicines-safety/COVID19-PV-update11.pdf. Side effects. Accessed on November 19.
  • WHO (2020). "Solidarity" Clinical Trial for COVID-19 Treatments. "Solidarity" Clinical Trial for COVID-19 Treatments, October, 15. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel- coronavirus-2019/global-research-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/solidarity-clinical-trial-for-covid- 19-treatments. Accessed November 19.
  • Worldometer (2020). Reported Cases and Deaths by Country, Territory, or Conveyance. Retrieved daily from https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus.
  • Wu, S., Patel, K.B. and Booth, L.J. (2010). Protective Essential Oil Attenuates Influenza Virus Infection: An In Vitro Study in MDCKCells. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10, Article number: 69. doi : https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-10-69
  • Xiao, J., Shiu, E. and Gao, H. (2020). Non-pharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Non-healthcare Settings-Personal Protective and Environmental Measures. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 26(5), 967-975. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2605.190994.
  • Xiao, K., Zhai, J. and Feng, Y. (2020). Isolation of SARS-CoV-2-related Coronavirus from Malayan Pangolins Nature 583, 286-289. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2313-x.
  • Xiaoguang, W. and Zenjing, L. (2014). Prevention and Treatment of Viral Respiratory Infections By Traditional Chinese Herbs. Chinese Medical Journal 12(7), 1344-1350. PMID: 24709192.
  • Xu, J., Shi, P-Y. and Li, H. (2020). Broad Spectrum Antiviral Agent Niclosamide and Its Therapeutic Potential. ACS Infectious Diseases, 6(5), 909-915. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00052.
  • Xue, H., Gan, F. and Qian, G. (2017). Astragalus Polysaccharaides Attenuate PCV2 Infection By Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Vivo and In Vitro. Scientific Reports, 7, Art. nr 40440. doi: 10.1038/ srep40440.
  • Yasuia, Y., Yasuib, H. and Suzukic, K. (2020). Analysis of the Predictive Factors For A Critical Illness Of Covid-19 During Treatment Relationship Between Serum Zinc Level And Critical Illness of COVID-19. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020, 100, 230-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.008
  • Yi, L., Li, Z. and Yuan, K. (2004). Small Molecules Blocking the Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus into Host Cells. Journal of Virology, 11334-11339. doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.20.11334-11339.2004.
  • Zamora, A., Borrego, A. and Lopez, O. (2005). Effects of Ozone Oxidative Preconditioning on TNF-a Release And Antioxidant-prooxidant Intracellular Balance In Mice During Endotoxic Shock. Mediators of Inflammation, 16-22. doi: 10.1155/MI.2005.16
  • Zhang, Q., Ju, Y. and Ma, Y. (2018). N-acetylcysteine Improves Oxidative Stress And Inflammatory Response in Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia. Medicine (Baltimore). 97(45), e13087. doi: 10.1097/ MD.0000000000013087.*Zhang, L., Lin, D. and Kusov, Y. (2020). a-Ketoamides as Broad-Spectrum Inhibitors of Coronavirus and Enterovirus Replication: Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and Activity Assessment. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 63(9), 4562-4578 doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01828.
  • Zhang, P., Liu, W. and Liu, X. (2017). Astragalus polysaccharides Inhibit Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus Infection By Regulating Viral Replication. Microbial Pathogenesis 114, 124-128. doi: 10.1016/ j.mic.path.2017. 11.026 Epub2017.Nov 21.
  • Zhang, T., Wu, Q. and Zhang, Z. (2020). Probable Pangolin Origin of SARS-CoV-2 Associated with the COVID- 19 Outbreak. Current Biology, 30, 1346-1351. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022.
  • Zhou, F., Yu, T. and Du, R. (2020). Clinical Course And Risk Factors For Mortality Of Adult Inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Lancet. 395, 1054-1062. doi: 10.1016/S0140- 6736(20)30566-3.

Created by admin. Last Modification: Monday December 5, 2022 16:42:54 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 27)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
18905 ToC unusual.jpg admin 02 Dec, 2022 58.69 Kb 334
18904 COVID - Recent Past and Present - An Unusual Review_CompressPdf.pdf admin 02 Dec, 2022 244.05 Kb 170