Table of contents
- Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women – A double-blind randomised clinical trial
- Statins stimulate atherosclerosis and heart failure: pharmacological mechanisms.
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Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women – A double-blind randomised clinical trial
Thrombosis and Haemostasis, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH14-08-0675, May pp. 911–1157
M. H. J. Knapen (1), L. A. J. L. M. Braam (1), N. E. Drummen (1), O. Bekers (2), A. P. G. Hoeks (3), C. Vermeer (1)
(1) VitaK & Cardiovascular Research Institute (CARIM), Maastricht University, The Netherlands; (2) Central Diagnostic Laboratory, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands; (3) Biomedical Engineering, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
Observational data suggest a link between menaquinone (MK, vitamin K2) intake and cardiovascular (CV) health. However, MK intervention trials with vascular endpoints are lacking. We investigated long-term effects of MK-7 (180 µg MenaQ7/day) supplementation on arterial stiffness in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Healthy postmenopausal women (n=244) received either placebo (n=124) or MK-7 (n=120) for three years. Indices of local carotid stiffness (intima-media thickness IMT, Diameter end-diastole and Distension) were measured by echotracking. Regional aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral and carotid-radial Pulse Wave Velocity, cfPWV and crPWV, respectively) was measured using mechanotransducers. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (dp-ucMGP) as well as acute phase markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and markers for endothelial dysfunction Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM), E-selectin, and Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) were measured. At baseline dp-ucMGP was associated with IMT, Diameter, cfPWV and with the mean z-scores of acute phase markers (APMscore) and of markers for endothelial dysfunction (EDFscore).
After three year MK-7 supplementation
- cfPWV and the
- Stiffness Index βs ignificantly decreased in the total group,
- Young’s Modulus, and the
- ocal carotid PWV (cPWV)
improved in women having a baseline Stiffness Index β above the median of 10.8. MK-7 decreased dp-ucMGP by 50 % compared to placebo, but did not influence the markers for acute phase and endothelial dysfunction.
In conclusion, long-term use of MK-7 supplements improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women, especially in women having a high arterial stiffness.
-http://vitamink2.org/menaquinone-7-supplementation-improves-arterial-stiffness-healthy-postmenopausal-women-double-blind-randomised-clinical-trial-knapen-mhj-et-al/Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness . . ]
- Stiffness Index ß in the MK-7 group had decreased significantly after compared to the slight increase in the placebo group (-0.67 ± 2.78 vs +0.15 ± 2.51, respectively, p=0.018)
- “This is the first published study that shows that a ‘nutritional’ dose of vitamin K can actually improve cardiovascular properties, which correlates with improved status of vitamin K (i.e., a decreased level of dpucMGP) in the body.”
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Mar;8(2):189-99. doi: 10.1586/17512433.2015.1011125. Epub 2015 Feb 6.
Okuyama H1, Langsjoen PH, Hamazaki T, Ogushi Y, Hama R, Kobayashi T, Uchino H.
1Nagoya City University and Institute for Consumer Science and Human Life, Kinjo Gakuin University, 2-1723 Omori, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8521, Japan.
In contrast to the current belief that cholesterol reduction with statins decreases atherosclerosis, we present a perspective that statins may be causative in coronary artery calcification and can function as mitochondrial toxins that impair muscle function in the heart and blood vessels through the depletion of coenzyme Q10 and 'heme A', and thereby ATP generation.
Statins inhibit the synthesis of vitamin K2, the cofactor for matrix Gla-protein activation, which in turn protects arteries from calcification. Statins inhibit the biosynthesis of selenium containing proteins, one of which is glutathione peroxidase serving to suppress peroxidative stress. An impairment of selenoprotein biosynthesis may be a factor in congestive heart failure, reminiscent of the dilated cardiomyopathies seen with selenium deficiency.
Thus, the epidemic of heart failure and atherosclerosis that plagues the modern world may paradoxically be aggravated by the pervasive use of statin drugs. We propose that current statin treatment guidelines be critically reevaluated.
All items in category Predict Vitamin D
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Cardiovascular and Vitamin K
- Cardiovascular Disease prevented by Vitamin K2-4 when enough is used – RTC review Sept 2020
- Calcium Supplementation is OK provided you also take Vitamin K – Feb 2019
- Vitamin K reduces calcification (reported yet again) – Feb 2019
- Vitamin K (across all dose sizes and types) decrease Vascular Stiffness – meta-analysis - Dec 2018
- Vitamin D and Vitamin K together fight CVD Part 1- Pizzorno
- Vitamin K, Cardiovascular and interactions with Vitamin D and Vitamin A – Pizzorno July 2018
- Mortality associated with Vitamin K insufficiency (PREVEND Study) – Nov 2017
- Intracranial arterial calcification in 85 percent of ischemic strokes (Vitamin K and Vitamin D should help) – Oct 2017
- Decalcify Aortic Valve – 3 year trial with 1 mg of Vitamin K and 5,000 IU of Vitamin D – 2021
- Cardiovascular problems reduced by low dose aspirin and perhaps Omega-3 (also Vit K) – Sept 2017
- Athletes maximal cardiac output increased 12 percent with Vitamin K2 – RCT July 2017
- Fast blood flow 6.8 X more likely if high vitamin D AND high vitamin K – Aug 2017
- Low Vitamin K2 is as risky as smoking for heart disease - Oct 2016
- Cardiovascular death: 9 percent due to hypertension or air pollution, 7 percent: low Vitamin K2 or smoking – Oct 2016
- Decreased need for warfarin after Vitamin D levels optimized – RCT May 2016
- Cardiovascular calcification prevented by Omega-3, Magnesium, Vitamin K, and Vitamin D – April 2015
- The health benefits of vitamin K – Oct 2015
- If you must take statins and want to avoid hardening of arteries, take vitamin K2 – RCT May 2015
- Vitamin K2 decreases arterial stiffness (cleans arteries) – RCT Feb 2015
- Hypothesis: Vitamin K will reduce prostate blood vessel problems – Jan 2015
- Increased Vitamin K2 reduces the problems of excess Calcium – Nov 2013
- Cholesterol, Vitamins D3 and K2, heart disease, sulfates, LDL, – Masterjohn Interview Jan 2013
- Soft Bones, Hard Arteries, Vitamin D, Vitamin K2 and antibiotics – Sept 2012
- Vitamin D – vitamin K – bittle bones – hardened arteries – LEF Sept 2010
- Do Statins Promote Coronary Calcification Medscape April 2015
- Consumer Alert: 300+ Health Problems Linked To Statin Drugs GreenMed Info April 2012
- Statin Drugs Found To Accelerate Arterial Calcification GreenMed Info Aug 2012
- Health Guide - Statin Gruds GreenMed Info
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