Effect of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids Added to Statin Therapy on Coronary Artery Plaque in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial - Dec 2017
J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Dec 15;6(12). pii: e006981. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.006981.
Alfaddagh A1, Elajami TK1, Ashfaque H1, Saleh M1, Bistrian BR1, Welty FK2.
1 Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
2 Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA fwelty at bidmc.harvard.edu.
- Statins and vitamin D
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Although statins reduce cardiovascular events, residual risk remains. Therefore, additional modalities are needed to reduce risk. We evaluated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in pharmacologic doses added to statin treatment on coronary artery plaque volume.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
A total of 285 subjects with stable coronary artery disease on statins were randomized to omega-3 ethyl-ester (1.86 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.5 g of docosahexaenoic acid daily) or no omega-3 (control) for 30 months. Coronary plaque volume was assessed by coronary computed tomographic angiography. Mean (SD) age was 63.0 (7.7) years; mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤80 mg/dL. In the intention-to-treat analysis, our primary endpoint, noncalcified plaque volume, was not different between groups (P=0.14) but approached significance in the per protocol analysis (P=0.07). When stratified by age in the intention-to-treat analysis, younger omega-3 subjects had significantly less progression of the primary endpoint, noncalcified plaque (P=0.013), and fibrous, calcified and total plaque. In plaque subtype analysis, controls had significant progression of fibrous plaque compared to no change in the omega-3 ethyl-ester group (median % change [interquartile range], 5.0% [-5.7, 20.0] versus -0.1% [-12.3, 14.5], respectively; P=0.018). Among those on low-intensity statins, omega-3 ethyl-ester subjects had attenuation of fibrous plaque progression compared to controls (median % change [interquartile range], 0.3% [-12.8, 9.0] versus 4.8% [-5.1, 19.0], respectively; P=0.032). In contrast, those on high-intensity statins had no difference in plaque change in either treatment arm.
High-dose eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid provided additional benefit to statins in preventing progression of fibrous coronary plaque in subjects adherent to therapy with well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The benefit on low-intensity statin, but not high-intensity statin, suggests that statin intensity affects plaque volume.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ur
l: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01624727.
PMID: 29246960 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.117.006981
Efficacy and Safety of Adding Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Statin-treated Patients with Residual Hypertriglyceridemia: ROMANTIC (Rosuvastatin-OMAcor iN residual hyperTrIglyCeridemia), a Randomized, Double-blind, and Placebo-controlled Trial
Clinical Therapeutics, Volume 40, Issue 1, January 2018, Pages 83-94, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2017.11.007
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of adding ω-3 fatty acids to rosuvastatin in patients with residual hypertriglyceridemia despite statin treatment.
This study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. After a 4-week run-in period of rosuvastatin treatment, the patients who had residual hypertriglyceridemia were randomized to receive rosuvastatin 20 mg/d plus ω-3 fatty acids 4 g/d (ROSUMEGA group) or rosuvastatin 20 mg/d (rosuvastatin group) with a 1:1 ratio and were prescribed each medication for 8 weeks.
A total of 201 patients were analyzed (mean [SD] age, 58.1 [10.7] years; 62.7% male). After 8 weeks of treatment, the percentage change from baseline in triglycerides (TGs) and non–HDL-C was significantly greater in the ROSUMEGA group than in the rosuvastatin group (TGs: −26.3% vs −11.4%, P < 0.001; non–HDL-C: −10.7% vs −2.2%, P = 0.001). In the linear regression analysis, the lipid-lowering effect of ω-3 fatty acids was greater when baseline TG or non−HDL-C levels were high and body mass index was low. The incidence of adverse events was not significantly different between the 2 groups.
In patients with residual hypertriglyceridemia despite statin treatment, a combination of ω-3 fatty acids and rosuvastatin produced a greater reduction of TGs and non−HDL-C than rosuvastatin alone. Further study is needed to determine whether the advantages of this lipid profile of ω-3 fatty acids actually leads to the prevention of cardiovascular event. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03026933.Low-dose statin plaque formation stopped by Omega-3 – RCT Dec 2017
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