Vitamin D Supplementation, Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Front Cardiovasc Med. 2018 Jul 12;5:87. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2018.00087. eCollection 2018.
Mirhosseini N1, Rainsbury J2, Kimball SM1,3.
- Vitamin D supplementation reduces many Cardiovascular Disease markers– meta-analysis July 2018
- Low-dose vitamin D does not help cardiovascular (many were 100-1,000 IU) – meta-analysis June 2019
- Heart Failure and Vitamin D meta-analyses - 2016, 2019
- Vitamin K (across all dose sizes and types) decrease Vascular Stiffness – meta-analysis - Dec 2018
- Small or infrequent doses of vitamin D do not reduce heart failure much – meta-analysis Jan 2018
- Peripheral arterial disease risk is 1.5X higher if low vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018
- Omega-3 reduced time in hospital and atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery – meta-analysis May 2016
- Cardiovascular deaths 12 percent less likely if have 10 ng more vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2017
- Health problems prevented by eating nuts (perhaps due to Magnesium and or Omega-3) – meta-analysis Dec 2016
- Atrial Fibrillation 1.3 times more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2016
- Coronary Artery Disease without diabetes 5 times more likely if VDR gene problems – meta-analysis May 2016
- Chronic Heart Failure not treated by Vitamin D, if dose size is ignored – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Atrial fibrillation sometimes treated by Omega-3 – meta-analysis Sept 2015
- Peripheral Arterial Disease patients have low vitamin D levels – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- C-reactive protein (heart disease marker) reduced by vitamin D – meta-analysis 2014, 2019
- Cardiovascular disease associated with postmenopausal non-human primates – meta-analysis Jan 2015
- Adding Calcium does NOT cause cardiovascular problems (reverses their meta-analysis) – Dec 2014
- Statin pain associated with 10 ng less vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2014
- Risk of Cardiac failure reduced 20 percent by 800 IU of vitamin D and Calcium – meta-analysis July 2014
- Magnesium prevents cardiovascular events – Meta-analysis March 2013
- Cardiovascular disease 50 % more likely if low vitamin D - meta-analysis Nov 2012
- Omega-3 does not help heart patients – meta-analysis Sept 2012
- Half as many heart deaths for those with high levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2012
- Shift workers 23 percent more likely to have cardiovascular events – meta-analysis July 2012
- Low density lipoprotein cholesterol is predictable from vitamin D levels – meta-analysis March 2012
- 800 IU Vitamin D does not help heart – meta-analysis Aug 2011
- Calcium without vitamin D increased heart risk by 30 percent - Jan 2011
- Meta-analysis unsure if vitamin D can prevent cardiovascular disease – Sept 2010
A few of the many wonderful tables
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are associated with low serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in observational studies; however, clinical trial findings are inconsistent.
Objective: We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation and increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations on CVD risk factors in a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
Design: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched for RCTs that evaluated vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes [blood pressure, parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL, respectively), triglycerides, peak wave velocity (PWV) and Augmentation Index (AI)] from 1992 through 2017. Meta-analysis was based on a random-effects model and inverse variance method to calculate standardized mean difference (SMD) as effect sizes, followed by a leave-one-out method for sensitivity analysis. Risk of publication bias was assessed using Cochrane checklist and Begg funnel plots. The systematic review is registered as CRD42015025346.
Results: We identified 2341 studies from which 81 met inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in
- systolic blood pressure (SMD = -0.102 ± 0.04 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.20 to -0.03),
- diastolic blood pressure (SMD = -0.07 ± 0.03 mmHg, 95% CI, -0.14 to -0.006),
- serum PTH (SMD = -0.66 ± 0.08 ng/L, 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.49),
- hs-CRP (SMD = -0.20 ± 0.07 mg/L, 95% CI, -0.34 to -0.06),
- total cholesterol (SMD = -0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, 95% CI, -0.25 to -0.04),
- LDL (SMD = -0.10 ± 0.05 mmol/L, 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.003),
- triglycerides (SMD = -0.12 ± 0.06 mmol/L, 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.003) and a significant increase in
- HDL (SMD = 0.09 ± 0.04 mmol/L, 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.17)
with vitamin D supplementation. These findings remained significant in sensitivity analyses for blood pressure, lipid profile, serum PTH, and serum hs-CRP. There was no significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on PWV (SMD = -0.20 ± 0.13 m/s, 95% CI, -0.46 to 0.06, p = 0.14) and AI (SMD = -0.09 ± 0.14%, 95% CI, -0.37 to 0.19, p = 0.52) for vitamin D supplemented groups.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that vitamin D supplementation may act to protect against CVD through improving risk factors, including high blood pressure, elevated PTH, dyslipidemia, and inflammation.