Vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women: contributions from human and nonhuman primate studies.
Menopause. 2015 Jan 5.
Schnatz PF1, Nudy M, Jiang X, Demko JE, Appt SE.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among American postmenopausal women and all adult Americans. The medical community and the lay community have recently become intrigued with vitamin D and its potential role in reducing the risk of CVD. Research findings from multiple retrospective studies, few prospective studies, and recent nonhuman primate studies have been inconsistent and conflicting. The objective of this study is to review what is known about the topic, what questions remain unanswered, and where the research community should be focusing.
A literature search was conducted through PubMed and Google Scholar up to August 1, 2014. One hundred six articles, including 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials, relevant to the study topic were identified. All studies were stratified based on study design and primary outcome. The effects of vitamin D on CVD were reviewed and summarized.
Although there is an abundance of observational studies suggesting an association with CVD protection, the most well-controlled randomized human trial data available show no benefit of vitamin D on CVD. However, highly controlled nonhuman primate studies indicate a beneficial relationship
Well-designed research, with CVD as primary outcome, is needed to help bridge the gap in our knowledge on this topic. In the meantime, caution should be applied to avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment of vitamin D deficiency.
- Overview Cardiovascular and vitamin D
- Association of Vitamin D Status With Coronary Artery Disease in Postmenopausal Women
- Cardiovascular category listing with associated searches - such as the following
The TOP articles in Cardiovascular and Vitamin D are listed here:
- Calcium Supplementation is OK provided you also take Vitamin K – Feb 2019
- Signs of low Magnesium (heart problems in this case) – Jan 2018
- Cardiovascular death 40 percent more likely in a decade if chest pain and low Vitamin D - March 2018
- Arterial stiffness reduced by Omega-3, Vitamin D, Vitamin K2, Magnesium, etc.
- Vitamin D augmented conventional Congestive Heart Failure treatment in perhaps 10 ways – case reports April 2017
- Omega-3 is vital for health, mail-in test is low cost and accurate
- ALL of the top 10 health problems of women are associated with low vitamin D
- Inflammatory diseases: review of vitamin D, with many tables – May 2014
- Athletes (national-level) with less than 10 ng of vitamin D had smaller hearts – Jan 2014
- Vitamin D is not a cardiovascular fad like Vitamins C, E, Folic Acid, selenium, beta-caroteen, etc. – Circulation Nov 2013
- Fewer heart attacks, hip fractures and deaths if more skin cancer – Sept 2013
- Vitamin D protects against many types of health problems – review May 2013
- Magnesium prevents cardiovascular events – Meta-analysis March 2013
- Major Heart attacks occur 40 percent more often if vitamin D lower than 7 ng – Feb 2013
- Cardiovascular system benefits from both Omega-3 and vitamin D – Dec 2012
- Almost 6X more likely to die after coronary bypass if vitamin D deficient – Dec 2012
- Hypothesis: Sun-produced nitric oxide reduces cardiovascular problems
- 2X more complications after heart surgery associated with high level of vitamin D – Jan 2013
- Cholesterol, Vitamins D3 and K2, heart disease, sulfates, LDL, – Masterjohn Interview Jan 2013
- Timeline of Heart Disease, Diabetes, fats, lard, HFCS, and vitamin D – Aug 2012
- Soft Bones, Hard Arteries, Vitamin D, Vitamin K2 and antibiotics – Sept 2012
- Best heart geometry associated with vitamin D of 30-37 ng – Oct 2012
- Statins associated with 14X increase in Polymyalgia Rheumatica (a new disease) – Aug 2012