The association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2019 Nov 7;19(1):248. doi: 10.1186/s12872-019-1236-7.
Gholami F1,2, Moradi G2,3, Zareei B2,4, Rasouli MA5,6, Nikkhoo B7, Roshani D2,3, Ghaderi E2,3.
Heart Failure and Vitamin D meta-analyses - 2016, 2019 contains same results by a different study
CVD mortality 1.5X higher if <20 ng of vitamin D - meta-analysis 2019
- Arterial stiffness reduced if use at least 2,000 IU of Vitamin D for 4 months – meta-analysis Dec 2019
- Blood vessels not helped by small vitamin D doses – meta-analysis Dec 2019
- Vitamin D supplementation reduces many Cardiovascular Disease markers– meta-analysis July 2018
- Low-dose vitamin D does not help cardiovascular (many were 100-1,000 IU) – meta-analysis June 2019
- Heart Failure and Vitamin D meta-analyses - 2016, 2019
- Vitamin K (across all dose sizes and types) decrease Vascular Stiffness – meta-analysis - Dec 2018
- Small or infrequent doses of vitamin D do not reduce heart failure much – meta-analysis Jan 2018
- Peripheral arterial disease risk is 1.5X higher if low vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018
- Omega-3 reduced time in hospital and atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery – meta-analysis May 2016
- Cardiovascular deaths 12 percent less likely if have 10 ng more vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2017
- Health problems prevented by eating nuts (perhaps due to Magnesium and or Omega-3) – meta-analysis Dec 2016
- Atrial Fibrillation 1.3 times more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2016
- Coronary Artery Disease without diabetes 5 times more likely if VDR gene problems – meta-analysis May 2016
- Chronic Heart Failure not treated by Vitamin D, if dose size is ignored – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Atrial fibrillation sometimes treated by Omega-3 – meta-analysis Sept 2015
- Peripheral Arterial Disease patients have low vitamin D levels – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- C-reactive protein (heart disease marker) reduced by vitamin D – meta-analysis 2014, 2019
- Cardiovascular disease associated with postmenopausal non-human primates – meta-analysis Jan 2015
- Adding Calcium does NOT cause cardiovascular problems (reverses their meta-analysis) – Dec 2014
- Statin pain associated with 10 ng less vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2014
- Risk of Cardiac failure reduced 20 percent by 800 IU of vitamin D and Calcium – meta-analysis July 2014
- Magnesium prevents cardiovascular events – Meta-analysis March 2013
- Cardiovascular disease 50 % more likely if low vitamin D - meta-analysis Nov 2012
- Omega-3 does not help heart patients – meta-analysis Sept 2012
- Half as many heart deaths for those with high levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2012
- Shift workers 23 percent more likely to have cardiovascular events – meta-analysis July 2012
- Low density lipoprotein cholesterol is predictable from vitamin D levels – meta-analysis March 2012
- 800 IU Vitamin D does not help heart – meta-analysis Aug 2011
- Calcium without vitamin D increased heart risk by 30 percent - Jan 2011
- Meta-analysis unsure if vitamin D can prevent cardiovascular disease – Sept 2010
There is a controversy about the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The effect of serum 25-OH-vitD on the risk of CVDs was evaluated.
Major electronic databases including Scopus, Science Direct, and PubMed were searched. All prospective cohort studies on the relationship between vitamin D status and CVDs conducted between April 2000 and September 2017 were included, regardless language. The study participants were evaluated regardless of their age, sex, and ethnicity. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of the studies. Two investigators independently selected the studies and extracted the data. The designated effects were risk ratio (RR) and hazard ratio (HR). The random effects model was used to combine the results.
A meta-analysis of 25 studies with 10,099 cases of CVDs was performed. In general, a decrease in the level of vitamin D was associated with a higher relative risk of CVDs (incidence-mortality combined) (RR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.69). This accounts for 54% of CVDs mortality rate (RR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.29-1.84(. However, no significant relationship was observed between the vitamin D status and incidence of CVDs (RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1-1.39). In general, low serum vitamin D level increased the risk of CVD by 44% (RR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.69). It also increased the risk of CVD mortality (RR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.29-1.84) and incidence rates (RR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1-1.39).
The findings showed that vitamin D deficiency increases the CVDs mortality rate. Due to the limited number of studies on patients of the both genders, further research is suggested to separately evaluate the effect of vitamin D status on CVD in men and women.