Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of cardiovascular disease: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar 1. pii: ajcn140392. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.140392. [Epub ahead of print]
Zhang R1,2,3,4, Li B1, Gao X5, Tian R1, Pan Y1,2,3,4, Jiang Y1,2,3,4, Gu H1,2,3,4, Wang Y1,2,3,4, Wang Y1,2,3,4, Liu G6,2,3,4.
1Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
2China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China.
3Center of Stroke, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, China.
4Beijing Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine for Cerebrovascular Disease, Beijing, China; 5Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.
6Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; liugaifen1997 at 163.com.
Based on many studies, VitaminDWiki suspects a 60% reduction in CVD mortality in those having
- Enough Vitamin D
- Enough Magnesium
- Enough Omega-3
- Enough Vitamin K2
- Reduced Calcium
For every 10 nanogram/mL higher vitamin D
Cardiovascular category listing has
10% less likely to have CVD Events
12% less likely to have CVD death
The Meta-analyses of Cardiovascular and Vitamin D
- Vitamin D supplementation reduces many Cardiovascular Disease markers– meta-analysis July 2018
- Low-dose vitamin D does not help cardiovascular (many were 100-1,000 IU) – meta-analysis June 2019
- Heart Failure and Vitamin D meta-analyses - 2016, 2018
- Vitamin K (across all dose sizes and types) decrease Vascular Stiffness – meta-analysis - Dec 2018
- Small or infrequent doses of vitamin D do not reduce heart failure much – meta-analysis Jan 2018
- Peripheral arterial disease risk is 1.5X higher if low vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2018
- Omega-3 reduced time in hospital and atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery – meta-analysis May 2016
- Cardiovascular deaths 12 percent less likely if have 10 ng more vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2017
- Health problems prevented by eating nuts (perhaps due to Magnesium and or Omega-3) – meta-analysis Dec 2016
- Atrial Fibrillation 1.3 times more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2016
- Coronary Artery Disease without diabetes 5 times more likely if VDR gene problems – meta-analysis May 2016
- Chronic Heart Failure not treated by Vitamin D, if dose size is ignored – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Atrial fibrillation sometimes treated by Omega-3 – meta-analysis Sept 2015
- Peripheral Arterial Disease patients have low vitamin D levels – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- C-reactive protein (heart disease marker) reduced by vitamin D – meta-analysis 2014, 2019
- Cardiovascular disease associated with postmenopausal non-human primates – meta-analysis Jan 2015
- Adding Calcium does NOT cause cardiovascular problems (reverses their meta-analysis) – Dec 2014
- Statin pain associated with 10 ng less vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2014
- Risk of Cardiac failure reduced 20 percent by even a small amount of vitamin D – meta-analysis July 2014
- Magnesium prevents cardiovascular events – Meta-analysis March 2013
- Cardiovascular disease 50 % more likely if low vitamin D - meta-analysis Nov 2012
- Omega-3 does not help heart patients – meta-analysis Sept 2012
- Half as many heart deaths for those with high levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2012
- Shift workers 23 percent more likely to have cardiovascular events – meta-analysis July 2012
- Low density lipoprotein cholesterol is predictable from vitamin D levels – meta-analysis March 2012
- 800 IU Vitamin D does not help heart – meta-analysis Aug 2011
- Calcium without vitamin D increased heart risk by 30 percent - Jan 2011
- Meta-analysis unsure if vitamin D can prevent cardiovascular disease – Sept 2010
Vitamin D Intervention AND Cardiovascular studies
- 50,000 IU of vitamin D weekly following cardiac failure helps – RCT 2014
- 50,000 IU of Vitamin D for 9 weeks was enough to restore blood levels (but not long enough to statistically improve CVD) – Aug 2018
- Cardiovascular risk markers not helped by 20,000 IU of vitamin D weekly – RCT May 2018
- Heart attack ICU costs cut in half by Vitamin D – Oct 2018
- Hypertension not controlled by 26 ng of Vitamin D (50,000 IU bi-weekly A-A) – RCT Nov 2017
- Heart Failure not helped by Vitamin D (several strange things about the trial) – RCT May 2017
- Chronic Heart Failure improved with 4,000 IU daily for a year – RCT April 2016
- Cardiovascular death reduction in dark skin migrants by just 1,000 IU of vitamin D – May 2015
- Heart failure markers reduced by 400 IU of vitamin D and Calcium (surprise) – RCT Jan 2015
- Angina dramatically reduced by injections of vitamin D twice a month (300,000 IU) – Jan 2015
- Salmon intervention (vitamin D and Omega-3) improved heart rate variability and reduced anxiety – Nov 2014
- 1700 IU vitamin D for a year provided no cardiovascular benefit (no surprise) – RCT Oct 2014
- Seniors with Heart Failure helped by daily 4,000 IU of vitamin D (increase 16 ng) – RCT Aug 2014
- Hearts responded to stress better after 5,000 IU of vitamin D for a month - March 2014
- More blood was pumped by those getting 800,000 IU of vitamin D after heart failure – RCT Oct 2013
- Chronic Heart Failure helped with 2,000 IU of vitamin D (PRA reduced) – RCT June 2013
- 4000 IU vitamin D daily for just 5 days reduced inflammation after heart attack – RCT Jan 2013
- Congestive heart failure in infants virtually cured by 1000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Feb 2012
- Chance of death after heart failure reduced by 1000 IU of vitamin D – Feb 2012
Cardiovascular category starts with the following
- Overview Cardiovascular and vitamin D
- Hypertension and vitamin D
- Overview Metabolic Syndrome and vitamin D
- Overview Stroke and vitamin D
- Heart Attack 647 items as of May 2018
- Arrhythmia OR “atrial fibrillation” 497 items as of May 2018
- (Arrhythmia OR “atrial fibrillation”) AND Magnesium 345 items as of May 2018
- "C-Reactive Protein" 1530 items as of June 2019
- TRIGLYCERIDES 863 items as of May 2018
- "Peripheral Artery Disease" 170 items as of July 2019
- "Sudden Cardiac Arrest" 98 items as of May 2018
- Search VitaminDWiki for CHF or "HEART FAILURE" 1220 items as of Aug 2017
- Search VitaminDWiki for Atherosclerosis 1510 items as of July 2019
- Cholesterol is needed to produce both Vitamin D and Cortisol
- Overview Cholesterol and vitamin D
- Statins and vitamin D statins often reduce levels of vitamin D
Studies in all 3 categories: Cardiovascular, Meta-analysis and Mortality
Background: During the past decade, an increasing number of prospective studies have focused on the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the evidence on the relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and the risk of overt CVD is inconclusive.
Objective: We performed a dose-response meta-analysis to summarize and prospectively quantify the RR of low serum 25(OH)D concentration and total CVD (events and mortality).
Design: We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed and EMBASE up to December 2015 and by hand-searching reference lists. Prospective studies based on the general population and reported RRs and 95% CIs were included. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled RRs. Nonlinear association was assessed by using restricted cubic spline analyses.
Results: A total of 34 publications with 180,667 participants were eligible for the meta-analysis. We included 32 publications (27 independent studies) for total CVD events and 17 publications (17 independent studies) for CVD mortality. We observed an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D and total CVD events and CVD mortality, and the pooled RRs per 10-ng/mL increment were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86, 0.94) for total CVD events and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.96) for CVD mortality. A nonlinear association was detected for total CVD events (P-nonlinear < 0.001) and CVD mortality (P-nonlinear = 0.022).
Conclusion: Serum 25(OH)D concentration was inversely associated with total CVD events and CVD mortality from the observed studies.
© 2017 American Society for Nutrition. Publisher rents this PDF as well as all other PDFs for a total of $25
PMID: 28251933 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.140392
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