Effect of Vitamin D on Blood Pressure and Hypertension in the General Population: An Update Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials
Prev Chronic Dis 2020;17:190307. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd17.190307 A CDC Journal
Dongdong Zhang, MD1; Cheng Cheng, MD2; Yan Wang, MD1; Hualei Sun, MD1; Songcheng Yu, MD1; Yuan Xue, MD1; Yiming Liu, MD1; Wenjie Li, MD, PhD1; Xing Li, MD1
Hypertension is reduced by Vitamin D :
- High Blood Pressure reduced by Vitamin D supplementation in seniors and obese – meta-analysis May 2019
- Blood pressure reduced by monthly 100,000 IU of vitamin D in those who were deficient – RCT Oct 2017
- Hypertension risk decreased 10X by increasing vitamin D levels to more than 40 ng – Nov 2017
- Hypertension not reduced much if use less than 5,000 IU of Vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2018
Hypertension also reduced by Magnesium
- Reduce blood pressure by 9 mm with triple hypertensive drug or 19 mm with Magnesium – April 2018
- Prehypertension risk is increased by 78% if low Magnesium – Aug 2015
Hypertension also reduced by Omega-3
- Hypertension reduced by Omega-3, especially if previously untreated – meta-analysis July 2014
- Blood pressure 4 mm lower if Omega-3 index was high – March 2018
- Hypertension nonconventional therapies: Magnesium, melatonin, Vitamin C, etc. – Jan 2018
Hypertension also reduced by Vitamin K
- Hypertension 1.7 times more likely if low Vitamin D AND K – Sept 2016
- Low Vitamin D or Vitamin K2 may be a cause of Hypertension and Osteoporosis – Nov 2012
Founder of VitaminDWiki speculates that Vitamin D + Mg + Omega-3 + Vitamin K2 would be great
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Clipped from PDF
- “…hypertension risk reduced by 7% per 25 nmol/L increment in 25(OH)D levels”
- “… we restricted this meta-analysis to analyses of apparently healthy individuals. We excluded trials that have targeted patients with hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or other diseases,…”
The effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure has been explored in previous meta-analyses, but whether the association is causal in the general population is still unknown. We evaluated the association comprehensively and quantitatively.
We searched PubMed and Embase for relevant cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We used a 2-step generalized least-squares method to assess the dose–response association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and hypertension and a fixed-effects model to pool the weighted mean differences (WMDs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of blood pressure across RCTs.
We identified 11 cohort studies and 27 RCTs, with 43,320 and 3,810 participants, respectively. The dose–response relationship between circulating 25(OH)D levels and hypertension risk was approximately L-shaped (Pnonlinearity = .04), suggesting that the risk of hypertension increased substantially below 75 nmol/L as 25(OH)D decreased, but it remained significant over the range of 75–130 nmol/L. However, pooled results of RCTs showed that there was no significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (WMD, −0.00 mm Hg; 95% CI, −0.71 to 0.71) or diastolic blood pressure (WMD, 0.19 mm Hg; 95% CI, −0.29 to 0.67) after vitamin D intervention.
The results of this meta-analysis indicate that supplementation with vitamin D does not lower blood pressure in the general population. RCTs with long-term interventions and a sufficient number of participants who have low levels of vitamin D are needed to validate these findings.