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Vitamin K and bone health – need more research Oct 2013

Vitamin K and bone health

Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Maryam S. Hamidi1,
Olga Gajic-Veljanoski1,
Angela M. Cheung1, 2, angela.m.cheung at gmail.com
1 Osteoporosis and Women's Health Programs at University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada
2 Department of Medicine at University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Vitamin K has been purported to play an important role in bone health. It is required for the gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin (the most abundant noncollagenous protein in bone), making osteocalcin functional.

There are 2 main forms (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2), and they come from different sources and have different biological activities. Epidemiologic studies suggest a diet high in vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in aging men and women.

However, randomized controlled trials of vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation in white populations did not increase bone mineral density at major skeletal sites.

Supplementation with vitamin K1 and K2 may reduce the risk of fractures, but the trials that examined fractures as an outcome have methodological limitations.

Large well-designed trials are needed to compare the efficacies of vitamin K1 and K2 on fractures. We conclude that currently there is not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of vitamin K supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women.
Address correspondence to: Angela M. Cheung, MD, PhD, Osteoporosis and Women's Health Programs, University Health Network, 200 Elizabeth Street, 7 Eaton North – Room 221, Toronto, ON M5G 2C4, Canada.

Sections of the paper
Forms and Dietary Sources of Vitamin K
Dietary Recommendations
Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin K Supplements
Vitamin K and Bone Metabolism
The Associations Between Vitamin K and BMD and Fractures: Observational Studies
The Effects of Vitamin K Supplementation on BMD and Fractures: Clinical Trials and Their Meta-Analyses
Methodological Limitations of the Current Evidence
Safety and Adverse Effects of Vitamin K Supplements
Gaps in Knowledge and Future Research

See also VitaminDWiki

Pages listed in BOTH the categories Vitamin K and Bone