Ellen M. Apalset a,b ellen.apalset at isf.uib.no; Clara G. Gjesdal b, c, Geir E. Eide a, d, and Grethe S. Tell a,
a Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Kalfarveien 31, N-5018 Bergen, Norway
b Department of Rheumatology, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021 Bergen, Norway
c Section of Rheumatology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
d Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021 Bergen, Norway
Received 26 April 2011; revised 5 July 2011; accepted 23 July 2011, Available online 2 August 2011.
Article in Press, Uncorrected Proof ; doi:10.1016/j.bone.2011.07.035
Evidence of the effect of vitamin K on bone health is conflicting.
The aim was to investigate the association between intake of vitamins K1 and K2 and subsequent risk of hip fracture in a general population sample, as well as potential effect modification by apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) status by presence of the E4 allele.
1569 men and 1238 women 71–75 years of age were included in the community-based Hordaland Health Study 1997–1999 in Western Norway. Information on hip fracture was obtained from hospitalizations in the region from enrolment until 31 December 2009. Information on intake of vitamins K1 and K2 collected at baseline was used as potential predictors of hip fracture in Cox proportional hazards regression analyses.
Participants in the lowest compared to the highest quartile of vitamin K1 intake had increased risk of suffering a hip fracture (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.57 [95% CI 1.09, 2.26]).
Vitamin K2 intake was not associated with hip fracture.
Presence of APOE4-allele did not increase the risk of hip fracture, nor was there any effect modification with vitamin K1 in relation to risk of hip fracture.
A low intake of vitamin K1, but not K2, was associated with an increased risk of hip fractures.
- An increased risk of hip fracture was found among elderly persons with low intake of vitamin K1.
- No effect modification of APOE status in the vitamin K1-hip fracture relation was found.
- Intake of vitamin K2 through diet was not associated with risk of hip fracture.
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No indication of how much Vitamin K2, so difficult to say that a proper amount of Vitamin K2 would not help.
- Vitamin K and Vitamin D
- Controversy: K2 better than K1 at building bones