Hints that suicide is associated with low vitamin D:
- Suicide peaks in the Spring, when vitamin D values are lowest
- Suicide has increased while vitamin D has been decreasing
- Suicide higher in dark-skinned individuals (low vitamin D due to built-in sun protection)
- Suicide higher in prison (shut-ins have low levels of vitamin D)
- Suicide attempts in males 3.7 X more likely if poor CYP24A1 gene (less D to cells)
- Suicide rate is higher at high latitudes (where vitamin D is less available)
See Criteria to associate a health problem with low vitamin D
Table of contents
- VitaminDWiki pages with SUICIDE in title (13 as of May 2022)
- See also VitaminDWiki
- Search Google Scholar suicide and "Vitamin D" 24,600 items as of Sept 2022
- Vitamin D helps in many ways, Omega-3 reduces Depression, Magnesium reduces stress - Sept 2022
- Vitamin D: Attemped suicide 12 ng, controls 19 ng - Feb 2020
- More suicide if more activated Vitamin D Receptor (disagrees with other studies) - Feb 2020
- People who attempted suicide were vitamin D deficient – Dec 2014
- Suicde 2X more likely in military if low vitamin D - 2013
- Suicide increasing and is now the top cause of death of adults
- Suicide rate increased by at least 20% in most US counties in a decade
- Suicides increasing over the years, and peak in the Spring
- Suicide infographic
- See also web - Vitamin D
- See also web - Cholesterol
- See also web - Suicide Chats in Israel increased 3X in May 2020 vs May 2019 (COVID-19)
This list is automatically updated
- Prisoners have very low vitamin D and get TB, influenza, and depression
Depression 9X higher for female prisoners than female non-prisoners
- Hypothesis: Some Mental Illness could be treated or prevented with vitamin D
- 96 percent vitamin D deficient – destitute asylum seekers and refugees in London – Nov 2012 35% were at high risk of suicide
- All items in category Depression and Vitamin D
- Anti-depression medication about as good as big increase in vitamin D – meta-analysis of flawless data April 2014
Search Google Scholar suicide and "Vitamin D" 24,600 items as of Sept 2022
- Evaluating the heterogeneous effect of a modifiable risk factor on suicide: The case of vitamin D deficiency Nov 2021 - https://doi.org/10.1002/mpr.1897 FREE PDF
- Low Vitamin D Status and Suicide: A Case-Control Study of Active Duty Military Service Members - 2013
- 2X less likely if high vs low vitamin D https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051543 FREE PDF
The Association Between Low Vitamin D Levels and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents
Ann Clin Psychiatry, 32 (1), e1-e8 2020 Feb 1
Gamze Gokalp 1
Background: Psychiatric disorders are the most common cause of suicide attempts. Some studies have shown there is a relationship between low vitamin D levels and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined the relationship between suicidal behavior and vitamin D levels in adolescents.
Method: This study included 215 patients who presented to the pediatric emergency department due to a suicide attempt (patient group) and 200 healthy individuals (control group). Demographic and clinical features of both groups were recorded, and serum vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus levels were measured. The groups were compared in terms of these factors. All data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Illinois, USA) software program.
Results: The mean vitamin D level was 19.4 ± 10 ng/mL in the control group and 12.3 ± 6 ng/mL in the patient group (t = 8.8 and P = .01). The mean serum total calcium level was 9.9 ± 0.3 mg/dL in the control group and 9.4 ± 0.5 mg/dL in the patient group (P < .01).
Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency, which is a treatable condition, may be one of the causes of suicidal behavior in adolescents. Therefore, we believe that physicians who treat adolescents should consider vitamin D levels in routine examinations.
Increased brain vitamin D receptor expression and decreased expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide in individuals who died by suicide
Journal of Psychiatric Research. Available online 27 February 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.02.027
Teodor T.Postolacheabc1FaisalAkramadEllen E.LeeefgChristopher A.LowrybchiJohn W.StilleradjLisa A.BrennerbciElizabeth A.StreetenkGustavoTureckilYogeshDwivedim1
Download the PDF from Sci-Hub via VitaminDWiki
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with immune dysregulation, increased vulnerability to infections, depression, and suicidal behavior. One mediator of vitamin D-dependent immune regulation and antimicrobial defense is the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (LL37), encoded by the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) gene. We compared the mRNA expression of the CRAMP gene, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, as well as the CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 genes (involved in vitamin D metabolism) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) between depressed individuals who died by suicide (n = 15) and matched (age, gender, and post-mortem interval) non-psychiatric controls (n = 15). Gene expression was measured through qRT-PCR with TaqMan® primers and probes, with GAPDH and β-actin genes as endogenous controls. Statistical analyses included t-tests and Pearson correlations. CRAMP mRNA expression was downregulated and VDR mRNA expression was upregulated in both dlPFC and ACC in suicides relative to controls, with no significant differences in expression of CYP24A1 and CYP27B1. To our knowledge, this is the first study on brain cathelicidin expression in the human brain in relationship to suicide. Increased VDR and decreased CRAMP expression are consistent with previously reported associations between vitamin D deficiency, immune dysregulation, and suicidal behavior, and should lead to future studies uncovering novel interactive targets for suicide prevention.
Suicidal patients are deficient in vitamin D, associated with a pro-inflammatory status in the blood
Psychoneuroendocrinology, Volume 50, December 2014, Pages 210–219
Cécile Grudet a cecile.grudet at med.lu.se. Johan Malm b, Åsa Westrin a, c, Lena Brundin d, e
a Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Psychiatry, Lund University, 221 85 Lund, Sweden
b Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section for Clinical Chemistry, Malmö, Lund University, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden
c Psychiatric Clinic, Lund, Region Skåne, Sweden
d Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI, USA
e Laboratory for Behavioral Medicine, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI, USA
Low levels of vitamin D may play a role in psychiatric disorders, as cross-sectional studies show an association between vitamin D deficiency and depression, schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood, although vitamin D is known to influence the immune system to promote a T helper (Th)-2 phenotype. At the same time, increased inflammation might be of importance in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. We therefore hypothesized that suicidal patients would be deficient in vitamin D, which could be responsible for the inflammatory changes observed in these patients.
We compared vitamin D levels in suicide attempters (n = 59), non-suicidal depressed patients (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 14). Subjects were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and went through a structured interview by a specialist in psychiatry. 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 were measured in plasma using liquid-chromatography–mass-spectrometry (LC–MS). We further explored vitamin D's association with plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α.
Suicide attempters had significantly lower mean levels of vitamin D than depressed non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. 58 percent of the suicide attempters were vitamin D deficient according to clinical standard. Moreover, there was a significant negative association between vitamin D and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the psychiatric patients. Low vitamin D levels were associated with higher levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β in the blood.
The suicide attempters in our study were deficient in vitamin D. Our data also suggest that vitamin D deficiency could be a contributing factor to the elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines previously reported in suicidal patients. We propose that routine clinical testing of vitamin D levels could be beneficial in patients with suicidal symptoms, with subsequent supplementation in patients found to be deficient.
Low Vitamin D Status and Suicide: A Case-Control Study of Active Duty Military Service Members
PLOS ONE 8(9): 10.1371/annotation/9af84cbe-5576-4c4b-871c-f7ab0c64b9fd.
John C. Umhau ,David T. George,Robert P. Heaney,Michael D. Lewis,Robert J. Ursano,Markus Heilig,Joseph R. Hibbeln ,Melanie L. Schwandt
Considering that epidemiological studies show that suicide rates in many countries are highest in the spring when vitamin D status is lowest, and that low vitamin D status can affect brain function, we sought to evaluate if a low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] could be a predisposing factor for suicide.
We conducted a prospective, nested, case-control study using serum samples stored in the Department of Defense Serum Repository. Participants were previously deployed active duty US military personnel (2002–2008) who had a recent archived serum sample available for analysis. Vitamin D status was estimated by measuring 25(OH) D levels in serum samples drawn within 24 months of the suicide. Each verified suicide case (n = 495) was matched to a control (n = 495) by rank, age and sex. We calculated odds ratio of suicide associated with categorical levels (octiles) of 25(OH) D, adjusted by season of serum collection.
More than 30% of all subjects had 25(OH)D values below 20 ng/mL. Although mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations did not differ between suicide cases and controls, risk estimates indicated that subjects in the lowest octile of season-adjusted 25(OH)D (<15.5 ng/mL) had the highest risk of suicide, with subjects in the subsequent higher octiles showing approximately the same level of decreased risk (combined odds ratio compared to lowest octile = 0.49; 95% C.I.: 0.315–0.768).
Low vitamin D status is common in active duty service members. The lowest 25(OH)D levels are associated with an increased risk for suicide. Future studies could determine if additional sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation might reduce suicide by increasing 25(OH) D levels.
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Contextual Factors Associated With County-Level Suicide Rates in the United States, 1999 to 2016 JAMA Sept 2019
Has free PDF
No, Suicides Don't Rise During the Holidays Dec 2015
Pollen suspected, Vitamin D not mentioned
- Study suggests connection between Alaska suicide rates, higher latitudes Nov 2013
- Inflammation and suicide attempts: Where does vitamin D fit in? Vitamin D Council, Oct 2014
This page is in the following categories (# of items in each category)Depression
- Serum lipid levels and suicidality: a meta-analysis of 65 epidemiological studies Jan 2016
123% higher risk of suicide attempt - from 510,392 people
- Review of above study by Dr. Grimes, Dec 2016
"A comment from the authors, but not an observation from the study:"
“an increasing number of reports raise the possibility that statins, a class of lipid-lowering agents, may be associated with deleterious cognitive, mood and behavioural adverse effects, including violence, depression and suicide, which have been attributed to the effect of statins’ cholesterol level reduction on brain function.”
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