Vitamin D Deficiency and Associated Factors in Patients with Mental Disorders Treated in Routine Practice.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2017;63(2):85-95. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.63.85.
Ristic S1, Zivanovic S2, Milovanovic DR3, Janjic V4, Djokovic D4, Jovicevic A1, Pirkovic MS5, Kocic S6.
PDF shows that mentally ill patients also
- Smoked more (lowers Vitamin D level)
- Exercised less
- Got less sun (less vitamin D)
- More likely to use Calcium Channel Blockers
- Suicide associated with low vitamin D
- Anti-depression medication about as good as big increase in vitamin D – meta-analysis of flawless data April 2014
- Depression might be reduced by vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014
- from the web: “Clozapine is a psychiatric medication (anti-psychotic type) that works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances (neurotransmitters) in the brain. Clozapine decreases hallucinations and helps prevent suicide in people who are likely to try to harm themselves.”
This research aimed to investigate factors associated with vitamin D deficiency and to provide data about its prevalence in patients suffering from different psychiatric illnesses. The study had a cross-sectional design and it included 220 patients of both genders, aged from 19-81 y, with a wide range of mental disorders (F00-F89), and treated in routine ambulatory and hospital practice. The researchers collected data from three sources: medical records, a study questionnaire and biochemical analysis of patients' serum samples (concentration of vitamin D measured as 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, methods for hypothesis testing and binary logistic regression, at the p≤0.05 level. A total of 140 patients (64%) had a deficiency of vitamin D (<12 ng/mL), and 45 (20%) had inadequate vitamin D serum levels (12-20 ng/mL), while 35 (16%) had sufficient vitamin D serum concentrations (>20 ng/mL).
Among variables related to demographics, life style habits, mental illness, comorbid disorders and drugs, two of them, female gender (odds ratio (OR)=2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3-4.9, p=0.006) and using clozapine (OR=15.6, 95% CI 1.7-144.7, p=0.02), were significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency. Physical activity (OR= 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p=0.02), exercising (OR=0.2, 95% CI <0.1-0.7, p=0.02) and offal in the diet (OR=0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9, p=0.03) significantly aggregated in the patients who had a 25(OH)D serum concentration above the deficiency cut-off level. Patients with mental disorders are at high risk for vitamin D deficiency, particularly females and clozapine users as well as those having no adequate physical activity or dietary habits.
PMID: 28552881 DOI: 10.3177/jnsv.63.85