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Many pregnant women are deficient when taking the recommended amount of Vitamin D – Jan 2023

Longitudinal Assessment of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels during Pregnancy and Postpartum—Are the Current Recommendations for Supplementation Sufficient?

Nutrients 2023, 15, 339. https:// doi.org/10.3390/nu15020339
Pilar Palmrich h*, Alexandra Thajer 2 , Nawa Schirwani 1 , Christina Haberl 1 , Harald Zeisler 1 , Robin Ristl 3 and Julia Binder1©

  • Department of Obstetrics and Feto-Maternal Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
  • Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Pediatric Intensive Care Medicine
  • Neuropediatrics, Comprehensive Center for Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
  • Center for Medical Statistics, Informatics and Intelligent Systems, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria

HDP (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy),
GDM (gestational diabetes mellitus),
IGDM (insulin-dependentgestational diabetes mellitus),
PROM (preterm rupture of membranes),
NICU (neonatal intensive care unit),
RDS (respiratory distress syndrome),
SGA (small for gestational age)

Background: Pregnant women are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Data on pregnancy outcomes in women with vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy are controversial, and prospective longitudinal data on vitamin D deficiency with consistent definitions in pregnant women are scarce.

Methods: The aim of this prospective longitudinal cohort study was to investigate 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels over the course of pregnancy and postpartum in singleton and twin pregnancies with regard to dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake and environmental factors influencing vitamin D levels, evaluated by a standardized food frequency questionnaire.

Results: We included 198 healthy singleton and 51 twin pregnancies for analysis. A total of 967 study visits were performed over a 3-year period.

  • 59.5% of pregnant women were classified as vitamin D deficient in the first trimester,
  • 54.8% in the second trimester,
  • 58.5% in the third trimester,
  • 66.9% at birth, and
  • 60% 12 weeks postpartum,

even though 66.4% of the study population reported daily pregnancy vitamin intake containing vitamin D. Dietary vitamin D intake did not affect vitamin D levels significantly.

Conclusions: The majority of pregnant women evaluated in this study were vitamin D deficient, despite administration of pregnancy vitamins containing vitamin D. Individualized vitamin D assessment during pregnancy should be considered to ensure adequate supplementation and prevention of hypovitaminosis D.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

This study considers <20 ng to be deficient. Everyone should have 40 ng. including before, during, and after pregnancy

VitaminDWiki - Pregnancy category contains

845 items in Pregnancy category

 - see also

VitaminDWiki -Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D contains

0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial

VitaminDWiki – Infant-Child category has 748 items and contains

Having a good level of vitamin D cuts in half the amount of:

Need even more IUs of vitamin D to get a good level if;

  • Have little vitamin D: premie, twin, mother did not get much sun access
  • Get little vitamin D: dark skin, little access to sun
  • Vitamin D is consumed faster than normal due to sickness
  • Older (need at least 100 IU/kilogram, far more if obese)
  • Not get any vitamin D from formula (breast fed) or (fortified) milk
    Note – formula does not even provide 400 IU of vitamin D daily

Infants-Children need Vitamin D

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
19142 Preg problem percentage.jpg admin 24 Jan, 2023 02:21 44.94 Kb 62
19140 Vit D during pregnancy.pdf PDF 2023 admin 24 Jan, 2023 02:20 410.17 Kb 6