Association of parental-reported vitamin D supplementation with dental caries of 3-year-old children in Poland: a cross-sectional study
Clinical Oral Investigations (2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-021-03914-8
Dorota Olczak-Kowalczyk, Urszula Kaczmarek, Dariusz Gozdowski & Anna Turska-Szybka
400 IU daily for infants (is enough to prevent rickets)
- Turkey gave 400 IU vitamin D to all infants and reduced Rickets by 60X - 2011
- 400 IU of Vitamin D in food provided virtually no benefit to children - March 2018
600 IU daily for infants
- Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Infants reduced 5.9 X by daily 600 IU of vitamin D (China) - March 2020
1,000 IU for infants
- Infants in France and Finland need 1000 IU of vitamin D, but apparently infants in US need only 400 - 2013
1600 IU for infants
- Third study found that Infants needed 1600 IU of vitamin D – JAMA RCT May 2013
- 1600 IU vitamin D safe for infants – RCT Nov 2102
2,000 IU for infants
- in the 1960's Finland gave 2,000 IU to infants, and no problem seen even 35 years later
- Children need 2000 IU of Vitamin D (India) - RCT May 2019
- Vitamin D for infants – 100,000 IU monthly is better than 400 IU daily – RCT Oct 2020 ~3,000 IU daily
- Newborn Vitamin D - single 50,000 IU is better than daily – RCT Sept 2016
- 600,000 IU of vitamin D2 every 4 months for decades in East Germany – 1987
- Fewer pre-infants were vitamin D deficient when they got 800 IU – RCT Feb 2014
- Preemies getting 800 IU of vitamin D were 3X less likely to have low bone density 4 weeks later – RCT Oct 2017
Getting Vitamin D into infants
Many infants reject vitamin D drops, even when put on nipple
I speculate that the rejection is due to one or more of: additives, taste, and oils.
Infants have a hard time digesting oils, 1999 1997 and palm oils W.A. Price 1 2 3
Coconut oil, such as in D-Drops, is digested by infants. 1, 2 3
Bio-Tech Pharmacal Vitamin D has NO additves, taste, nor oil
One capsule of 50,000 Bio-Tech Pharmacal Vitamin D could be stirred into monthly formula or given once a month
this would result in ~1,600 IUs per day for infant, and higher dose with weight/age/formula consumption
Note: This survey found that children in Poland often only get Vitamin D supplments in the winter
The study aimed to assess the association between parental-reported vitamin D supplementation and caries in a national sample of 3-year-olds in Poland.
Materials and methods
A total of 1900 children, representing all provinces of Poland, were invited. The questionnaires concerned vitamin D supplementation, socio-demographics, and oral health behaviours. Based on dental examination, caries scores (dmft/dmfs), prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC) were calculated. The Spearman’s correlation, linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the association between various factors and caries (p < 0.05).
A total of 1638 children were tested. Of this number, 99.1% infants were supplemented with vitamin D. Supplementation had been continued seasonally in 55.2% children. ECC/S-ECC prevalence were significantly lower in children receiving vitamin D (ECC 38.3% vs. 44.7%, OR = 0.77; S-ECC 20.5% vs. 27.1%, OR = 0.69; p < 0.05). Mean dmft/dmfs were lower in those with supplementation (1.54 ± 2.72 vs. 2.24 ± 3.55; 2.40 ± 5.56 vs. 3.72 ± 7.56, respectively; p < 0.001). After controlling for confounding factors, supplementation was not significantly associated with caries; only dt/ds were still associated. Maternal education, sweetened beverages before bedtime, bottle use were significantly associated with S-ECC.
Lower caries prevalence was observed in those with vitamin D supplementation. The association between parental-reported vitamin D and ECC/S-ECC was not significant in Polish children. Decayed teeth and supplementation were still associated. Dietary habits can modify the association with caries.
There may be an association between vitamin D supplementation and lower caries in children. Parents should supplement their children during periods of significant growth and development.
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