Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani and Samira Behboudi-Gandevani
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/67394 251 references
- Male fertility 4 X higher if high Vitamin D – Nov 2015
- Assisted Reproduction – 5 studies concluded vitamin D repletion helps – Review March 2015
- Many fertility disorders associated with low vitamin D, still unsure how much is needed – Dec 2016
- Pregnancy success increased 30 percent if sunny (or vitamin D) one month earlier – June 2015
- Vitamin D somewhat assists reproduction – both the mother and the father – May 2014
- Preterm birth 3.3 times more likely if Vitamin D Receptor gene problem – Aug 2016
- In-vitro Fertilization costs at least 10,000 dollars, Vitamin D costs 5 dollars
has the following summary
|0. Chance of not conceiving||3.4 times||Observe|
|1. Miscarriage||2.5 times||Observe|
|2. Pre-eclampsia||3.6 times||RCT|
|3. Gestational Diabetes||3 times||RCT|
|4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality||3.5 times||Observe|
|5. Premature birth||2 times||RCT|
|6. C-section - unplanned||1.6 times||Observe|
|Stillbirth - OMEGA-3||4 times||RCT - Omega-3|
|7. Depression AFTER pregnancy||1.4 times||RCT|
|8. Small for Gestational Age||1.6 times||meta-analysis|
|9. Infant height, weight, head size |
within normal limits
|10. Childhood Wheezing||1.3 times||RCT|
|11. Additional child is Autistic||4 times||Intervention|
|12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis||1.9 times||Observe|
|13. Preeclampsia in young adult||3.5 times||RCT|
|14. Good motor skills @ age 3||1.4 times||Observe|
|15. Childhood Mite allergy||5 times||RCT|
|16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits||2.5 times||RCT|
RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
Vitamin D is one of the steroid hormones.
The precursor of vitamin D, 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is an intermediary for cholesterol pathway, is available in the skin.
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation makes the transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol to provitamin D3, which automatically isomerizes to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).
Vitamin D3 is secreted into blood circulation and carried by the vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP).
Around 80-90% of vitamin D is from sunlight-derived production in the skin.
A little amount of vitamin D is also extracted from foods and/or additional supplementation.
Vitamin D has been well known for its function in maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and promoting bone mineralization.
Accumulating evidence from animal and human studies suggests that vitamin D also modulates reproductive processes in women and men and is involved in many functions of the reproductive system.
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes are found in reproductive tissues of women and men.
This chapter presents an up-to-date review for describing the function of vitamin D in female reproduction throughout reproductive ages from menarche to menopause, during pregnancy and lactation, and some disorders affecting women and also the role of vitamin D applied to male fertility.