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IBD is treated by Vitamin D and other Nutraceuticals – June 2022

Nutraceuticals for the Treatment of IBD: Current Progress and Future Directions

Front Nutr. 2022 Jun 6;9:794169. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.794169
Quan-Yao Ban 1, Mei Liu 1, Ning Ding 1, Ying Chen 2, Qiong Lin 2, Juan-Min Zha 1, Wei-Qi He 1 3

PDF Table of Contents

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing-remitting inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients are usually diagnosed in adolescence and early adulthood and need lifelong treatment. In recent years, it has been found that diet plays an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Diet can change intestinal barrier function, affect the structure and function of intestinal flora, and promote immune disorder, thus promoting inflammation. Many patients believe that diet plays a role in the onset and treatment of the disease and changes their diet spontaneously. This review provides some insights into how nutraceuticals regulate intestinal immune homeostasis and improve intestinal barrier function. We reviewed the research results of dietary fiber, polyphenols, bioactive peptides, and other nutraceuticals in the prevention and treatment of IBD and sought better alternative or supplementary treatment methods for IBD patients.
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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone that is divided into vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. The main source of the human body is vitamin D3 synthesized by keratinocytes in the sun. When lack of sunlight leads to insufficient endogenous vitamin D production, vitamin D can be directly taken in through a daily diet or nutritional supplement. Only activated vitamin D plays a physiological role. Vitamin D is absorbed in the small intestine, transported to the liver and converted into 25(OH)D, finally forming its active form in the kidney in 1,25 dihydroxyl vitamin D(1,25 (OH)2D). Vitamin D, as a pleiotropic hormone, not only contributes to the absorption of calcium and phosphate but also plays a vital role in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis and intestinal barrier function (105).

Vitamin D/VDR Axis

Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) combine and transcribe related genes, which play a role in immune regulation. When microorganisms invade epithelial cells, vitamin D/VDR signal transduction activates various immune cells, which ensures the elimination of bacteria. Then, vitamin D regulates the expression of proinflammatory factors by promoting Treg cell production of IL-10 and inhibiting Th1/Th17, thus regulating the excessive immune response (106-108). In this way, vitamin D can limit the inflammatory reaction and avoid mucosal injury. Therefore, the vitamin D/VDR axis is considered to be helpful to maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. In addition, the vitamin D signaling pathway regulates the tight junctions of intestinal epithelial cells, promotes the expression of antibacterial peptides, and improves intestinal barrier function (109).

Vitamin D and IBD Prognosis

Vitamin D deficiency is a predictor of poor prognosis for IBD. Data show that low vitamin D levels in IBD patients are related to an increase in disease activity, hospitalization, and medication (110, 111). In a recent meta-analysis and systematic review, the author thinks that increasing vitamin D levels could reduce the recurrence of IBD disease and improve the quality of life of patients, such as improving bone pain and self-health. This conclusion is consistent with previous studies (105). A previous randomized controlled trial showed that low vitamin D levels before diagnosis were not associated with IBD, while postdiagnosis low vitamin D levels were associated with IBD. The researchers believed that vitamin D deficiency has nothing to do with the pathogenesis of IBD, and it is not recommended to supplement unnecessary vitamin D to prevent disease (112). In an umbrella review of meta-analyses, the authors reviewed the observational studies on environmental factors and IBD risk and concluded that vitamin D deficiency increased the risk of IBD (113). At present, there is no consensus on whether vitamin D deficiency is the cause or a consequence of IBD. However, maintaining a normal serum 25(OH)D level can improve the prognosis of IBD patients, which has been widely recognized. In addition, for patients treated with anti-TNF-a drugs, supplementation with vitamin D improves the response to medicine (114). Evidence suggests that vitamin D can reduce serum hepcidin levels in children with IBD and reduce the risk of anemia (115).
Because steroid drugs have adverse effects on the bones of patients, it is very important to improve bone health by supplementing vitamin D. Decreased sunlight exposure caused by immunosuppressive therapy can also lead to decreased vitamin D levels. The detection of serum 25(OH)D levels should be a basic component of IBD management. At present, there is no consensus on the level of serum 25(OH)D that should be maintained for IBD patients (116). The main circulating form of vitamin D, 25(OH)D, mainly exists in the form of combining with protein, and a few exist in the form of free (117). Some scholars believe that measuring the free serum 25(OH)D level instead of the total serum 25(OH)D level may be a more effective !!!!!method to reflect vitamin D status (114).

VDR, a New Target

In the DSS-induced colitis model, a lack of VDR leads to overexpression of Claudin-2 protein, and intestinal permeability increases. Researchers have shown that upregulation of VDR gene expression can alleviate inflammation in IBD patients, while vitamin D status does not affect the expression of VDR in the intestinal tract (118). Paradoxically, a recent animal experiment found that specific knockout of the VDR gene could prevent oxazolone-induced colitis. The related mechanisms include inhibition of the immune response mediated by Th2 cells and the influence of natural killer T-cells (119). These studies provide evidence for developing new therapeutic targets, that is, regulating VDR expression in intestinal epithelial cells (120). Assuming that vascular dementia has a protective effect on IBD, whether vitamin D supplements can increase vascular dementia and improve the severity of IBD needs further study.

VitaminDWiki pages containing Nutraceuticals in title (3 as of June 2022)

Items found: 4

Many gut trials have failed because they did not use Gut-Friendly Vitamin D

IBS or IBD or IRRITABLE BOWEL in 39 VitaminDWiki titles as of June 2022

Items found: 47
Title Modified
IBS - Vitamin D was the only micronutrient under DRV - meta-analysis Oct 2023 16 Dec, 2023
Vitamin D interactions with poor gut (Celiac, IBD, and Bariatric surgery) – several studies 22 Nov, 2023
IBD associated with low vitamin D again (they need to take a gut-friendly form of Vitamin D) – Oct 2023 14 Oct, 2023
IBS reduced by 50,000 IU of Vitamin D (weekly or bi-weekly) – Meta-analysis July 2023 16 Aug, 2023
Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Vitamin D - many studies 30 Jun, 2023
IBD treated in children by Vitamin D, especially if use more than 2,000 IU daily for 12 weeks – meta-analysis – Sept 2022 14 Sep, 2022
Vitamin D fights IBD, no consensus yet on dose size and type – Aug 2022 26 Aug, 2022
IBS helped by vitamin D (virtually ignoring dose size, type and duration) – meta-analysis June 2022 09 Jul, 2022
IBD is treated by Vitamin D and other Nutraceuticals – June 2022 23 Jun, 2022
IBD (Colitis, Crohn’s) was active 6X more often if low vitamin D – June 2015 30 May, 2022
IBD in children might be associated with low sun exposure 28 Feb, 2022
IBD strongly associated with low Vitamin D – Jan 2022 09 Jan, 2022
IBS not helped by daily 3,000 IU Vitamin D (but non-daily and gut-friendly help) – RCT July 2021 31 Jul, 2021
IBD and Crohn's patients need Vitamin D, even to increase drug efficacy (Vedolizumab) June 2021 29 Jun, 2021
IBS diarrhea treated by weekly 50,000 IU of Vitamin D – RCT March 2020 25 Mar, 2020
Irritable Bowel Syndrome treated by weekly 50,000 IU Vitamin D – RCT Feb 2019 18 Jan, 2020
IBD and UV dissertation - 2019 10 Sep, 2019
Vitamin D appears to fight Diabetes, MS, RA, Lupus, IBD, Hepatitis, Cancer, Psoriasis, Food allergy, etc – June 2019 17 Jul, 2019
IBD in Finland – 3X increase in 15 years, more prevalent further from equator – Nov 2012 14 May, 2019
Common cold incidence reduced by two thirds (500 IU for IBD with low vitamin D) – RCT Jan 2019 04 Jan, 2019
Risks of Colorectal Cancer, IBD, etc slightly increased if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Aug 2018 09 Dec, 2018
IBS (1 in 5 youths) strongly associated with low vitamin D – Dec 2018 01 Dec, 2018
IBD relapse rate reduced by low Vitamin D - meta-analysis Nov 2018 27 Nov, 2018
IBS quality of life improved by vitamin D (50,000 IU every two weeks) – RCT May 2016 14 Mar, 2018
IBS - many indications that Vitamin D will help - more research needed - March 2018 14 Mar, 2018
Irritable Bowel Syndrome: social media indicates that vitamin D is a good treatment – Oct 2013 05 Feb, 2018
IBS – 6 out of 7 studies shows Vitamin D helps, still want more studies – Jan 2018 25 Jan, 2018
Higher Vitamin D increased the benefit of anti-TNF- α drug used for IBD by 2.6 times – Jan 2017 31 Jan, 2017
IBD in Canadian children increasing 7% per year - Nov 2016 22 Nov, 2016
70 percent of people with IBS had symptoms relieved with high dose vitamin D – 2012 04 Nov, 2016
IBD UC and CD at risk of being vitamin D deficient – May 2011 04 Nov, 2016
IBS – 82 percent had low vitamin D, 3,000 IU spray helped a lot – RCT Dec 2015 25 Aug, 2016
Sleep, Vitamin D, Vitamin B-12, IBS, Fibromyalgia - Gominak March 2015 27 Jul, 2016
IBD deficiencies of Iron and Vitamin D (and new Iron types) – June 2016 20 Jun, 2016
IBS quality of life improved by vitamin D (50,000 IU weekly) – RCT May 2016 17 May, 2016
IBD helped by vitamin D but reluctant to state who helped, in what form, and how much – review Nov 2014 08 Jan, 2016
IBD more likely in areas with low UV ( and thus low vitamin D) – June 2014 05 Dec, 2015
Gut problems more likely if low vitamin D (IBD: 1.6, UC: 2.3) – meta-analysis Aug 2015 31 Oct, 2015
IBD (Collitis, Chron’s) was active 6X more often if low vitamin D – June 2015 03 Oct, 2015
Crohn’s disease deficient in vitamin K – IBD deficient in vitamins K and D – April 2011 17 Feb, 2015
Appears that IBD lowers vitamin D, which increases risk of cancer by 80 percent – Oct 2013 09 Jul, 2014
Irritable Bowel Syndrome - can it be treated by 3000 IU of vitamin D - RCT Feb 2014 28 Feb, 2014
IBD surgery 5X more likely for non-caucasians with low vitamin D – Oct 2012 03 Nov, 2012
IBD and Crohn but not Colitis associated with low vitamin D – May 2011 05 Jun, 2012
IBD colorectal Cancer and vitamin D – Jan 2011 14 Mar, 2012
Dogs – like humans – with IBD were low on vitamin D – July 2011 14 Mar, 2012
IBD less costly when treated with vitamin D3 compared to D2 – Jan 2012 12 Jan, 2012

IBD and Vitamin C

  • Vitamin C Deficiency in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The Forgotten Micronutrient - Oct 2021 PDF

Nutraceutical in Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutraceutical June 2022

  • "The word "nutraceutical" is a portmanteau of the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceutical", coined in 1989"
  • "Nutraceuticals are products derived from food sources that are purported to provide extra health benefits, in addition to the basic nutritional value found in foods. Depending on the jurisdiction, products may claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health, delay the aging process, increase life expectancy, or support the structure or function of the body"

Created by admin. Last Modification: Thursday June 23, 2022 20:58:58 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 13)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
17957 IBD vit C.pdf admin 23 Jun, 2022 155.25 Kb 160
17947 Nutraceuticals IBD ToC.jpg admin 23 Jun, 2022 47.97 Kb 231
17946 Nutraceuticals for the Treatment of IBD_CompressPdf.pdf admin 23 Jun, 2022 370.15 Kb 137