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Hypothesis: Placentas cause more autoimmune diseases in females – July 2019

The Pregnancy Pickle: Evolved Immune Compensation Due to Pregnancy Underlies Sex Differences in Human Diseases

Trends in GeneticsVOLUME 35, ISSUE 7, P478-488, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2019.04.008
Heini Natri, Angela R. Garcia, Kenneth H. Buetow, Benjamin C. Trumble, Melissa A. Wilson

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Autoimmune category starts with

Items in both categories Autoimmune and Pregnancy are listed here:

Items in both categories Autoimmune and Women are listed here:


Nice report on the study at the Atlantic.com

A New Theory for the Staggering Sex Difference in Autoimmune Disease

  • In the United States alone, women represent 80 percent of all cases of autoimmune disease.
  • Women are 16 times more likely than men to get Sjogren’s syndrome
  • Nine times more likely to have Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

 Download the PDF from Sci-Hub via VitaminDWiki
Many oscillations for women having many babies
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Highlights
There are major sex differences in human disease that cannot be explained by reproductive hormones or environmental exposures alone.
Genes on the sex chromosomes exhibit differences in expression that are independent of reproductive hormones, and could contribute to sex differences in disease.
We propose that the ancestral immune system was strongly shaped by the requirement to compensate for unique immune regulation during pregnancy.
Dimorphism in immune function in response to placentation and pregnancy occurs via direct impact of reproductive hormones on immune function, as well as through heritable variation in sex chromosome dosage.
Although evolution has shaped sex differences in immune function over millions of years, industrialized urban populations experience both exacerbated sex differences in hormonal composition as well as reduced pregnancies compared with nonindustrialized populations.
We hypothesize that, ancestrally, sex-specific immune modulation evolved to facilitate survival of the pregnant person in the presence of an invasive placenta and an immunologically challenging pregnancy – an idea we term the 'pregnancy compensation hypothesis' (PCH). Further, we propose that sex differences in immune function are mediated, at least in part, by the evolution of gene content and dosage on the sex chromosomes, and are regulated by reproductive hormones. Finally, we propose that changes in reproductive ecology in industrialized environments exacerbate these evolved sex differences, resulting in the increasing risk of autoimmune disease observed in females, and a counteracting reduction in diseases such as cancer that can be combated by heightened immune surveillance. The PCH generates a series of expectations that can be tested empirically and that may help to identify the mechanisms underlying sex differences in modern human diseases.


Created by admin. Last Modification: Thursday December 12, 2019 16:38:03 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 12)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
13144 Auto preg F1A.jpg admin 12 Dec, 2019 16:36 37.26 Kb 232
13143 Pregnacy auto F4.jpg admin 12 Dec, 2019 16:08 105.35 Kb 234
13142 Pregnancy Auto F1.jpg admin 12 Dec, 2019 16:08 19.97 Kb 183
13141 Pregnancy Auto T1.jpg admin 12 Dec, 2019 16:07 68.37 Kb 224
13140 Autoimmune pregnancy sci-hub.pdf PDF 2019 admin 12 Dec, 2019 16:07 1.97 Mb 262
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