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High level of maternal vitamin D and infant food allergy – controversy

Maternal and newborn vitamin D status and its impact on food allergy development in the German LINA cohort study

Allergy 2012; 68:220–228; DOI: 10.1111/all.12081.
K. Weisse 1, S. Winkler 1,2, F. Hirche 2, G. Herberth 1, D. Hinz 1, M. Bauer 1, S. Röder 3, U. Rolle-Kampczyk 4, M. von Bergen 4, S. Olek 5, U. Sack 6, T. Richter 7, U. Diez 7, M. Borte 7, G. I. Stangl 2, I. Lehmann 1,3, irina.lehmann at ufz.de
1 Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig
2 Institute for Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale)
3 Core Facility Studies, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig
4 Department of Metabolomics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig
5 Ivana Tuerbachova Laboratory for Epigenetics, Epiontis GmbH, Berlin
6 Medical Faculty, Institute for Clinical Immunology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig
7 Children's Hospital, Municipal Hospital “St. Georg”, Leipzig, Germany

Background
Vitamin D levels are known to be associated with atopic disease development; however, existing data are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether corresponding maternal and cord blood vitamin D levels are associated with atopic outcomes in early infancy.

Methods
Within the LINA cohort study (Lifestyle and environmental factors and their Influence on Newborns Allergy risk), 25(OH)D was measured in blood samples of 378 mother–child pairs during pregnancy and at birth. Information about children's atopic manifestations during the first 2 years of life was obtained from questionnaires filled out by the parents during pregnancy and annually thereafter. Cord blood regulatory T cells (Treg) were detected by methylation-specific PCR using a Treg-specific demethylated region in the FOXP3 gene.

Results
The median maternal 25(OH)D3 level was 22.19 ng/ml (IQR 14.40–31.19 ng/ml); the median cord blood 25(OH)D3 10.95 ng/ml (6.99–17.39 ng/ml). A high correlation was seen between maternal and cord blood 25(OH)D3 levels, both showing a seasonal distribution. Maternal and cord blood 25(OH)D3 was positively associated with children's risk for food allergy within the first 2 years. Further, higher maternal 25(OH)D3 resulted in a higher risk for sensitization against food allergens at the age of two. Cord blood 25(OH)D3 levels were negatively correlated with regulatory T cell numbers.

Conclusion
Our study demonstrates that high vitamin D levels in pregnancy and at birth may contribute to a higher risk for food allergy and therefore argues against vitamin D supplement to protect against allergy.

© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd


Controversy: studies showing opposite possibilities
  1. Low vitamin D ==> food allergies
  2. High vitamin D ==> food allergies
Wonder which is correct? Or are they both correct, but under different circumstances - which we do not yet understand

See also VitaminDWiki

See also web

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