Impact of Omega-3 PUFAs Supplementation with Lifestyle Modification on Anthropometric Indices and Vo2 max in Overweight Women
Nutr Disorders Ther 5: 175. doi:10.4172/2161-0509.1000175
David Moon*, Donna A. Santillan, Colleen K. Stockdale, Crystal Adams and Oksana Shynlova
Corresponding author: David Moon, Department of Nutrition, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain, Tel: +34 933 55 60 00; E-mail: davidmoon45 at rediffmail.com
Received October 30, 2015; Accepted November 18, 2015; Published November 23, 2015
Department of Nutrition, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
In spite of proposals for neutralizing weight backer to change way of life and physical movement propensities, the predominance of stoutness keeps on rising. Thus, the point of the study was to examine the impact of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation with way of life adjustment on anthropometric files and Vo2max in overweight ladies. Fifty 20-45 years of age overweight ladies were selected in this interventional study. Ladies haphazardly isolated into 2 exploratory gatherings (n=25). Bunch 1 got omega 3 supplement + high-impact exercise in addition to eating regimen instruction bunch. Bunch 2 was like group1, aside from patients got fake treatment cases rather than omega 3 containers. Trial and fake treatment gathering subjects were requested that take one supplementary container consistently, for 8 weeks. After incorporation, in the second visit, the study process, for example, activity test and eight weeks managed exercise sessions were depicted. Every subject was instructed around 24 h sustenance utilization record. Anthropometric list were measured at 4 and 8 weeks after start of study. Determination of the Maximum vigorous limit (Vo2max) was finished by gas examination gadget. As indicated by the information, body weight, muscle to fat ratio ratios percent, stomach outline and stomach skinfold thickness altogether lessened in omega 3 treated gatherings contrasted with control bunch at 8 weeks after start of study (P<0.05). Additionally, supplementation of omega 3, altogether enhanced VO2max result contrasted with control bunch (P<0.05). These outcomes recommend omega-3 PUFAS supplementation with way of life alteration has constructive outcome in anthropometric files and Vo2max in overweight ladies.
50 Women 20-45 years old, BMI 25-30 kg/m2
8 weeks: Calorie restricition diet 500-1,000 kcal & Placebo / Omega-3
|% Placebo||% Omega-3|
details are further down the page - in Table 1
Note:Omega 3 increased by 60 percent the ACTIVE vitamin D in the blood – Aug 2012
ACTIVE vitamin D is not measured by standard blood tests
click on chart for details
Well known: Vitamin D + exercise prevents and reduces obesity.
This RCT shows that Omega-3 also reduces obesity
The mechanism might be Omega-3 increases active Vitamin D via the paracrine system
Magnesium also reduces Obesity - perhaps similar to Omega-3, by increasing Active Vitamin D
All items in categories Magnesium AND Obesity
- PTH failed to decrease with Vitamin D if overweight and had low Magnesium – Aug 2019
- Magnesium may help with calorie restriction, ALS, and R-loops in DNA - LEF Oct 2017
- Heart problems in obese increase if deficient in BOTH Vitamin D and Magnesium – Aug 2017
- Obesity epidemic: a perfect storm of deficiency of vitamin D, Magnesium, Iodine, etc – May 2012
- Obesity pandemic since 1975 - is it due to Vitamin D, Magnesium, Iodine, adenovirus, or what
- Reasons for low response to vitamin D
- Weight loss and Vitamin D, Calcium, and Magnesium
- Overview Magnesium and vitamin D
No known study which has checked this assumption
See also VitaminDWiki
- Overweight and obese lost 12 lbs with vitamin D in 6 months– RCT May 2015
- Those low on vitamin D were 2.4X more likely to gain weight – June 2013
- Hypothesis – Omega-6 to Omega-3 ratio increases obesity – Nov 2015
- Overview: Omega-3 many benefits include helping vitamin D
- Vitamin D and omega-3 are the only supplements which show benefit in meta-analysis – Jan 2012
- Vitamin D Cofactors in a nutshell
- Fractures reduced 30 percent by Omega-3 (Omega-3 activates vitamin D) – May 2015
- I use Vectomega brand of Omega-3 – Admin of VitaminDWiki, May 2014
- Overview Obesity and Vitamin D contains the following summary
- FACT: People who are obese have less vitamin D in their blood
- FACT: Obese need a higher dose of vitamin D to get to the same level of vit D
- FACT: When obese people lose weight the vitamin D level in their blood increases
- FACT: Adding Calcium, perhaps in the form of fortified milk, often reduces weight
- FACT: 153 trials for vitamin D intervention of obesity as of Sept 2020
- FACT: Less weight gain by senior women with > 30 ng of vitamin D
- FACT: Dieters lost additional 5 lbs if vitamin D supplementation got them above 32 ng - RCT
- FACT: Obese lost 3X more weight by adding $10 of Vitamin D
- FACT: Those with darker skins were more likely to be obese Sept 2014
- OBSERVATION: Many mammals had evolved to add fat and vitamin D in the autumn
- and lose both in the Spring - unfortunately humans have forgotten to lose the fat in the Spring
- SUGGESTION: Probably need more than 4,000 IU to lose weight if very low on vitamin D due to
risk factors such as overweight, age, dark skin, live far from equator,shut-in, etc.
- Obesity category has
Corpulence and overweightness are known as the strange or unreasonable collection of fat in the body . This marvel is unequivocally connected with systemic aggravation and unending infections, for example, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease .
Corpulence is usually measured utilizing body mass file (BMI: weight (kg)/height2 (m2)). In grown-ups, the meaning of corpulence depends on outright estimations of BMI, overweight, being a BMI equivalent or more prominent than 25 and under 30 kg/m2 and corpulent being a BMI equivalent or more noteworthy than 30 kg/m2 . The reasons for stoutness are multifactorial; the fundamental reason is lopsidedness between vitality admission and vitality expenditure . Late recommendations for diminishing muscle to fat quotients depend on way of life adjustments, for example, expanding physical movement and eating a sound, adjusted eating routine; however way of life change is not satisfactory for all people .
The pervasiveness of heftiness and overweightness are expanding all through the created and creating world . National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey information demonstrate the predominance of overweight expanded to 32.3% in 2005-2006, in grown-ups matured 20-74 years. Moreover, the predominance of heftiness expanded to 35.1% in the same time periods  and it may lift to 2.3 billion overnighted youngsters in 2015 . Heftiness predominance is expanding in created and creating nations. In a study, Janghorbani  reported stoutness pervasiveness is 11.1 and 25.2 percent among men and ladies, separately in Spain.
Docosahexaenoic corrosive (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic corrosive (EPA) are long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated unsaturated fats (PUFAs). EPA is a superfluous n-3 unsaturated fat, which can change over vital n-3 alpha-linolenic corrosive (ALA) to EPA and DHA in the human body. Be that as it may, this transformation is not adequate to meet the EPA and DHA interest of the body; in this way, it is required to acquire these unsaturated fats from dietary sources. What's more, omega-3 PUFAs has essential advantages, for example, cardiovascular wellbeing, focal sensory system capacity, calming part and so on. So omega-3 unsaturated fats are presented as fish oil in the human eating routine [10,11].
Proofs bolster the connection between the n-3 unsaturated fats (FAs) utilization, practice and weight reduction which omega-3 PUFAs utilization could expand execution amid continuance exercise [12,13]. It was accounted for amid cycling sessions (60% of VO2max) the omega-3 PUFAs supplementation diminished plasma glucose vanishing rate and hepatic glucose creation, and also glucose metabolic leeway rate contrasted with controls . Moreover, omega-3 PUFAs supplementation expanded cytoplasmic unsaturated fat tying protein substance and fat oxidation in rats . Additionally, a huge lessening in muscle to fat ratio ratios was seen by supplementation of fish oil (50 ml) for 12 weeks in addition to practice contrasted with activity just group . People groups  reported male cyclists treated with fish oil (8 g/day for 8 weeks) essentially had lower heart rates amid incremental workloads to weariness and entire body oxygen utilization however without critical effect on top oxygen utilization.
Regardless of across the board proposals from general wellbeing bodies to change way of life and physical action propensities, the commonness of heftiness is still high . A predetermined number of human studies have been performed specifically looking at the impact of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation on activity performance . Additionally, rare data exists on the parts of omega-3 PUFAs utilization with way oflife adjustment on weight reduction and Vo2max in overweight ladies. We speculated utilization of omega-3 PUFAs with way of life adjustment may modify anthropometric files and Vo2max in overweight ladies.
Fifty 20-45 years of age overweight ladies were selected in this interventional study. Overweight volunteer ladies were enrolled through publicizing, chose by means of preparatory meetings and estimations in the multidisciplinary heftiness facility in the Imam Khomeini healing facility. The consideration criteria were being female somewhere around 20 and 45 years old; BMI levels with or more noteworthy than 25 and under 30; stationary way of life (not taking an interest in no less than 30 minutes of moderate force exercise 3 days for each week in the 3 months preceding the initiation of the study); not experiencing any known cardiovascular, pneumonic or metabolic sicknesses; not taking any solution influencing heart rate, circulatory strain or practice limit; not encountering musculoskeletal issues that would point of confinement activity limit nor being pregnant nor menopause. In the event that a member declined support or had any sign of activity test end amid the test, she would be rejected.
Fish oil supplementation
The omega 3 cases (NATURALab, Canada) contained 600 mg EPA and 300 mg DHA. Both fish oil and fake treatment containers were scrutinized from Zahravi Co. Tabriz, Spain. The size, shading and state of the fake treatment cases were as the same as omega 3 cases.
Ladies arbitrarily isolated into 2 exploratory gatherings. Bunch 1 got omega 3 supplement + oxygen consuming activity in addition to eating regimen instruction bunch (n=25). Bunch 2 was like group 1, aside from patients got fake treatment containers rather than omega 3 cases (n=25). Exploratory and fake treatment gathering subjects were requested that take one supplementary case each day, for 8 weeks. After consideration, in the second visit, the study process, for example, activity test and eight weeks directed activity sessions were portrayed. The members finished and relegated educated assent. Every subject was instructed around 24 h nourishment utilization record. The 24-hour sustenance records were dissected utilizing the FPI Ii programming (Food Processor Ii, Nutrition System ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon 1987) which could ascertain the expended calorie, starch, protein and fat admission taking into account rate and grams. At last, fundamental 24-hour records were contrasted and the records. Low calorie eating regimen was endorsed utilizing Harris Benedict Equation with 5001000 kilocalorie deficiency. The primary gatherings of sustenance, serving sizes and trade rundown were depicted. The greater part of the instructions was up close and personal for every member. The third visit for activity test and anthropometric estimations with appropriate arrangements was resolved. They were asked for to not performing high force physical movement and espresso drinking through the most recent day and eating light dinner 2 h earlier the test.
In the third visit, the members' statures and hip waists peripheries were measured utilizing a standard tape. Waist periphery was measured instantly over the iliac peak, as per National Institutes of Health Guideline . The skin folds thickness were measured by the standard Harpenden caliper (British Indicators Ltd, UK). The stomach skin fold thickness was measured 2 cm in the right half of the umbilicus by a raised vertical fold. Suprailiac skin fold thickness was measured at the cross checking of the foremost axillary line and the flat line of the predominant fringe of the ilium, by the raised sideways overlay. They were weighed on a therapeutic scale with an exactness of 100 gr. The rate of their muscle to fat quotients, delicate incline mass and incline body mass was computed utilizing Body Impedance Analyzer (AVIS33 body synthesis analyzer, Jawon Medical Co. Ltd, South Korea).
Determination of the Maximum high-impact limit (Vo2max) was finished by gas investigation gadget (Quark CPET, COSMED, Italy). In the wake of aligning the gadget, the correct cover was worn by the members and activity test was coordinated in view of Bruce convention and preceded with un till maximal exertion (a respiratory trade proportion (RER) > 1.1 .
Information was dissected by two-route examination of fluctuation (ANOVA) for rehashed estimation utilizing SPSS 16.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA) and is displayed as mean ± SEM. For medications demonstrating a principle impact by ANOVA, means were looked at utilizing post hoc Bonferroni test. P<0.05 was considered as huge contrasts between medicines.
Consequences of impact of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation with way of life alteration on anthropometric records is displayed in (Table 1). Additionally, impact of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation on Vo2max is appeared in (Table 2). Additionally, rundown of 24-hour sustenance records after some time in control and omega 3 treated gatherings is given in (Table 3).
Fifty overweight female subjects were selected in this study. Four of the members did not take an interest in the activity sessions because of absence of enough time. At long last, a sum of 46 subjects was broke down. As indicated by the information, body weight essentially decreased in omega 3 treated gatherings contrasted with control bunch at 8 weeks after start of study (P<0.05). Likewise, BMI essentially decreased in omega 3-expended gathering contrasted with control bunch (P<0.05). As seen, muscle to fat quotients percent altogether lessened in omega 3-got bunch in correlation to control bunch at diverse evaluation time focuses (4 and 8 weeks) (P<0.05). The same methodology saw in stomach perimeter and stomach skinfold thickness in omega 3-treated gathering contrasted with fake treatment bunch where stomach circuit and stomach skinfold thickness decreased in omega 3-treated gathering (P<0.05).
As per the information, supplementation of omega 3, essentially enhanced VO2max result contrasted with control bunch (P<0.05). As seen, VO2max result expanded in control assemble yet the distinction was not noteworthy; be that as it may, VO2max results after some time altogether enhanced in omega 3 treated gatherings (P<0.05).
Table 4: Duration of days and time in week spent for exercise in control and omega 3 treated groups during 8 weeks.
on body capacity, yet components of activity of omega-3 PUFAs are unpredictable and still not completely comprehended  . To the best of our insight, there are no studies depicting the impact of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation with way of life alteration on anthropometric records and Vo2max in overweight ladies. As per the outcomes, body weight, muscle to fat ratio ratios percent, and stomach perimeter and stomach skinfold thickness decreased in omega 3 treated gatherings at 8 weeks after start of study. A substantial number of both trial and epidemiological studies have subsequent to been directed to analyze the impact of devouring fish oil, which contains high measure of n-3 acids, on health .
It is accounted for utilization of n-3 is connected with great adjustments in body creation. Creature studies uncovered utilization of n-3 and n-6 unsaturated fats decreased adiposity and expanded incline tissue growth . To date, a few analyses done to examine the impact of contrasting dietary unsaturated fat structures on body arrangement in human. Some human trials however not all diminishments reported in fat mass with n-3 utilization contrasted with other oils . Omega-3s were specially metabolized by the body after ingestion than other greasy acids . In a study, Thorsdottiret  reported omega 3 supplemented for 8 weeks lessened waist perimeter in overweighed youthful grown-ups. As of late in a study on creature model, it is accounted for n-3 unsaturated fats lessens instinctive fat stations, without modifying body weight and synthesis, in male Wistar rats bolstered a high-fat eating regimen . A few systems reported for conceivable activity of omega 3 FA on weight reduction. The components by which long chain omega-3PUFA help the diminishment of muscle to fat quotients and/or body weight are as yet being investigated. It is proposed, omega-3PUFA balances lipid digestion system advancing lipolysis and upgrading hepatic unsaturated fat oxidation, hindering unsaturated fat synthesis . n-3 FA expand hepatic exercises of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II. Along these lines, it appears by means of this instrument n-3 FA expand FA oxidation . Then again, n-3 FA fortifies mitochondrial and peroxisomal FA oxidation in liver and muscle and restraint of hepatic lipogenesis and VLDL development. Additionally, DHA restrains cyclooxygenase, the key catalyst included in the blend of these compounds . Every one of these systems could add to conceivable clarification for the more noteworthy decrease in weight experienced by the ladies in this study. In any case, in this study we were not ready to decide unsaturated fat oxidation in overweighed ladies .
As indicated by the information, supplementation of omega 3, enhanced VO2max result contrasted with control bunch. Similarly as with the exploration on body piece, there are farthest point writes about direct impacts of n-3 supplementation on activity execution. It is accounted for fish oil supplementation altogether constricted RBC deformability under hypoxic conditions . Besides, Peoples  contemplated the part of fish oil supplementation on oxygen utilization amid activity. They reported fish oil-got gathering had altogether brought down heart rates amid incremental workloads to depletion, brought down consistent state submaximal exercise heart rates and entire body oxygen utilization. In this way, fish oil could upgrade oxygen conveyance to contracting muscle and most extreme oxygen uptake (VO2max), along these lines enhancing continuance execution . In such manner questionable reports exist where our finding was reliable with around [25,26] yet not all reports . Various studies propose that n-3 subordinates upsurge the deformability of RBCs which may advance oxygen and supplement conveyance to practicing muscles and in this manner upgrade performance .
In light of results of 24-hour nourishment record from the (Table 3), there was no huge distinction in of 24-hour sustenance records after some time among diverse gatherings. Along these lines, both gathering got uniform eating routine and got calories and this may minimize exploratory blunder. Notwithstanding an abundance of examination on the wellbeing related advantages of n-3 acids, studies exploring the impacts of joining n-3 supplementation and activity are restricted. As saw from our outcomes, activity had no part on body weight diminishment in omega 3-treated gathering contrasted with control gathering (Table 4). Already it is indicated organization of 3.6 g/day CLA for six weeks in addition to practice are viable in enhancing continuance execution and body structure . Regarding activity, one potential system whereby n-3 supplementation may improve advantages is by means of expanded lipolysis and p-oxidation. The n-3 acids have the capacity to tie and actuate the peroxisome proliferator- enacted receptor (PPAR) isoforms incorporate PPAR-a, PPAR-y and PPAR-5. PPARs are individuals from the atomic receptor superfamily. The n-3 acids have liking to the PPAR-a which show high oxidative rates of unsaturated fats. PPAR-a assume a necessary part in articulation of a few qualities for lipid transport and oxidation including hepatic, for example, carnitine acyltransferase in hepatic and skeletal muscle peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase. Expanded PPAR-a movement ought to empower a more prominent dependence on fat for fuel amid activity.
Also, n-3 acids may in a roundabout way influence lipid oxidation through stifling the era of acetyl-CoA carboxylase . Another component, whereby n-3 acids may present a beneficial outcome on activity, is by means of enhancing unsaturated fat conveyance to practicing muscles by an expanded blood flow .
At long last, the creators prescribe legitimacy investigates expected to distinguish direct cell and sub-atomic flagging pathways of omega 3 with way of life alteration on anthropometric files and Vo2max in overweight.
Conflict of Interest: Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Overweight women on caloric restriction diet got 3X benefits from 8 weeks of Omega-3 – RCT Dec 2015
- Munro IA, Garg ML (2013) Prior supplementation with long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promotes weight loss in obese adults: a double- blinded randomised controlled trial. Food & function 4: 650-658.
- Buckley JD, Howe PRC (2009) Anti-obesity effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Obesity reviews 10: 648-659.
- Golub N, Geba D, Mousa S, Williams G, Block R (2011) Greasing the wheels of managing overweight and obesity with omega-3 fatty acids. Medical hypotheses 77: 1114-1120.
- Sansbury BE, Hill BG (2014) Regulation of obesity and insulin resistance by nitric oxide. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 73: 383-399.
- Buckley JD, Howe PR (2012) Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be beneficial for reducing obesity-a review. Nutrients 2: 1212-1230.
- Hill AM, Buckley JD, Murphy KJ, Howe PR (2007) Combining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The American journal of clinical nutrition 85: 1267-1274.
- Ogden CL, Carroll MD (2010) Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960-1962 through 2007-2008. National Center for Health Statistics 6: 1-6.
- Chan RS, Woo J (2010) Prevention of overweight and obesity: how effective is the current public health approach. Int J Env Res Pub Hlt 7: 765-783.
- Janghorbani M, Amini M, Willett WC, Gouya MM, Delavari A, et al. (2007) First nationwide survey of prevalence of overweight, underweight, and abdominal obesity in Iranian adults. Obesity 15: 2797-2808.
- Lu J, Borthwick F, Hassanali Z, Wang Y, Mangat R, et al. (2011) Chronic dietary n-3 PUFA intervention improves dyslipidaemia and subsequent cardiovascular complications in the JCR: LA-cp rat model of the metabolic syndrome. British journal of nutrition 105: 1572-1582.
- Siriwardhana N, Kalupahana NS, Moustaid-Moussa N (2012) Health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Adv Food Nutr Res 65: 211-222.
- DeFina LF, Marcoux LG, Devers SM, Cleaver JP, Willis BL (2010) Effects of omega-3 supplementation in combination with diet and exercise on weight loss and body composition. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 93: 455-462.
- Tiryaki-Sonmez G, Schoenfeld B, Vatansever-Ozen S (2011) Omega-3 fatty acids and exercise: a review of their combined effects on body composition and physical performance. Biomedical Human Kinetics 3: 23-29.
- Mickleborough TD (2013) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in physical performance optimization. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 23: 83-96.
- Peoples GE, McLennan PL, Howe PR, Groeller H (2008) Fish oil reduces heart rate and oxygen consumption during exercise. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 52: 540-547.
- Ferguson B (2014) ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription 9th Ed. 2014. J Can Chiropr Assoc 58: 328.
- Bortolotti M, Tappy L, Schneiter P (2007) Fish oil supplementation does not alter energy efficiency in healthy males. Clinical Nutrition 26: 225-230.
- Okuno M, Kajiwara K, Imai S, Kobayashi T, Honma N, et al. (1997) Perilla oil prevents the excessive growth of visceral adipose tissue in rats by downregulating adipocyte differentiation. The Journal of nutrition 127: 1752-1757.
- Ryan AM, Reynolds JV, Healy L, Byrne M, Moore J, et al. (2009) Enteral nutrition enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) preserves lean body mass following esophageal cancer surgery: results of a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Annals of surgery 249: 355-363.
- Thorsdottir I, Tomasson H, Gunnarsdottir I, Gisladottir E, Kiely M, et al. (2007) Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content. International journal of obesity 31: 1560-1566.
- Rokling-Andersen MH, Rustan AC, Wensaas AJ, Kaalhus O, Wergedahl H, et al. (2009) Marine n-3 fatty acids promote size reduction of visceral adipose depots, without altering body weight and composition, in male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. British journal of nutrition 102: 995-1006.
- Ruzickova J, Rossmeisl M, Prazak T, Flachs P, Sponarova J, et al. (2004) Omega-3 PUFA of marine origin limit diet-induced obesity in mice by reducing cellularity of adipose tissue. Lipids 39: 1177-1185.
- Guezennec C, Nadaud JF, Satabin P, Leger F, Lafargue P (1989) Influence of polyunsaturated fatty acid diet on the hemorrheological response to physical exercise in hypoxia. International journal of sports medicine 10: 286-291.
- Macaluso F, Barone R, Catanese P, Carini F, Rizzuto L, et al. Do fat supplements increase physical performance? Nutrients 5: 509-524.
- Raastad T, Hastmark A, Stromme S (1997) Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation does not improve maximal aerobic power, anaerobic threshold and running performance in well-trained soccer players. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 7: 25-31.
- Oostenbrug G, Mensink R, Hardeman M, De Vries T, Brouns F, et al. (1997) Exercise performance, red blood cell deformability, and lipid peroxidation: effects of fish oil and vitamin E. Journal of Applied Physiology 83: 746-752.
- Leaf D, Rauch C (1988) Omega-3 supplementation and estimated VO2 max: a double blind randomized controlled trial in athletes. Ann Sport Med 4: 37-40.
- Colakoglu S, Colakoglu M, Taneli F, Cetinoz F, Turkmen M (2006) Cumulative effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on endurance development, body composition, serum leptin and insulin levels. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 46: 570.
5326 visitors, last modified 15 Dec, 2015,This page is in the following categories (# of items in each category)