Cardiovascular disease, mortality, and magnesium in chronic kidney disease: growing interest in magnesium-related interventions
Renal Replacement Therapy (2018) 4:1 DOI 10.1186/s41100-017-0142-7
- Vitamin D level can be high, but little benefit: due to kidney, genes, low Magnesium etc.
- Kidney disease requires magnesium - Jan 2013
- Magnesium reduced calcitriol (active vitamin D) artery calcification in CKD by 50 percent – Oct 2015
Magnesium and Vitamin D category contains the following summary
- Overview Magnesium and vitamin D
- Vitamin D Cofactors in a nutshell
- Magnesium and Vitamin D - similar, different and synergistic
- Magnesium deficiency – causes and symptoms – May 2016
- Magnesium is vital to Vitamin D in 4 places (maybe 8) – March 2018
- Magnesium and Vitamin D – recent deficiencies, needed, synergistic - good overview 2017
- The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare (with level of evidence) – Sept 2017
- Why Vitamin D is Useless without This Critical Nutrient (Magnesium) - Jan 2019
- Magnesium supplementation raises Vitamin D if initially less than 30 ng – RCT Dec 2018
- Magnesium is great for health, topical much faster than oral, MgCl is the best – 2019
- Magnesium is important for health but levels are low – July 2018
- How to get lots of Magnesium – especially needed for Coimbra MS and Autoimmune Protocol
- Some Podcasts by Dr. C Dean – Magnesium, Vitamin D, Iodine, etc.
- Magnesium and the body - depletion and reduced intake - Dean Oct 2019
- Magnesium, Vitamin D, Omega-3, TSH - importance and testing - Dean and Baggerly - Oct 2019
Number of studies in both of the categories of Magnesium and:Bone
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential element that plays pivotal roles in a number of biological processes in the human body. Hypomagnesemia is involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension, vascular calcification, and metabolic derangements including diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, which are all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Hypomagnesemia is also associated with the development and progression of CKD. As CKD advances, renal Mg excretion decreases and hypermagnesemia emerges in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In addition, dialysates with high Mg concentrations, which were used in the early era of dialysis therapy, increased the risk of hypermagnesemia, and thus, the dialysate Mg composition has since been reduced. Accordingly, dialysis patients in the modern era commonly have normomagnesemia or even hypomagnesemia.
The relationships between hypomagnesemia and cardiovascular disease and mortality have been increasingly reported in observational studies in CKD/ESRD. However, these relationships may be attenuated by a patient's race or region.
Although dialysates with higher Mg concentrations or Mg-containing phosphate binders appear to be promising in this setting, only a few interventional studies have examined the effects of Mg supplementation on cardiovascular lesions. Furthermore, the effects of Mg supplementation on mortality have not yet been investigated as a primary end-point in randomized controlled trials. Further studies are required in order to establish the efficacy and safety of Mg in CKD patients.