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COVID Long-Haul predicted by 4 factors (Epstein-Barr virus, etc) – Jan 24, 2022

Multiple Early Factors Anticipate Post-Acute COVID-19 Sequelae

Cell January 24, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2022.01.014


  • Longitudinal multiomics associate PASC with autoantibodies, viremia and comorbidities
  • Reactivation of latent viruses during initial infection may contribute to PASC
  • Subclinical autoantibodies negatively correlate with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies
  • Gastrointestinal PASC uniquely present with post-acute expansion of cytotoxic T cells


T1 = clinical diagnosis;
T2 = acute disease;
T3 =2-3 months post onset of initial symptoms

Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) represent an emerging global crisis. However, quantifiable risk-factors for PASC and their biological associations are poorly resolved. We executed a deep multi-omic, longitudinal investigation of 309 COVID-19 patients from initial diagnosis to convalescence (2-3 months later), integrated with clinical data, and patient-reported symptoms.
We resolved four PASC-anticipating risk factors at the time of initial COVID-19 diagnosis:

  1. type 2 diabetes,
  2. SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia,
  3. Epstein-Barr virus viremia, and
  4. specific autoantibodies.

In patients with gastrointestinal PASC, SARS-CoV-2-specific and CMV-specific CD8+ T cells exhibited unique dynamics during recovery from COVID-19. Analysis of symptom-associated immunological signatures revealed coordinated immunity polarization into four endotypes exhibiting divergent acute severity and PASC. We find that immunological associations between PASC factors diminish over time leading to distinct convalescent immune states. Detectability of most PASC factors at COVID-19 diagnosis emphasizes the importance of early disease measurements for understanding emergent chronic conditions and suggests PASC treatment strategies.
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Su, Y., Yuan, D., Chen, D.G., Ng, R.H., Wang, K., Choi, J., Li, S., Hong, S., Zhang, R., Xie, J., Kornilov, S.A., Scherler, K., Pavlovitch-Bedzyk, A.J., Dong, S., Lausted, C., Lee, I., Fallen, S., Dai, C.L., Baloni, P., Smith, B., Duvvuri, V.R., Anderson, K.G., Li, J., Yang, F., Duncombe,
C.J., McCulloch, D.J., Rostomily, C., Troisch, P., Zhou, J., Mackay, S., DeGottardi, Q., May, D.H, Taniguchi, R., Gittelman, R.M, Klinger, M., Snyder, T.M, Roper, R., Wojciechowska, G., Murray, K., Edmark, R., Evans, S., Jones, L., Zhou, Y., Rowen, L., Liu, R., Chour, W., Algren, H.A, Berrington, W.R., Wallick, J.A., Cochran, R.A., Micikas, M.E., the ISB-Swedish COVID19 Biobanking Unit, Terri Wrin, Petropoulos, C.J., Cole, H.R., Fischer, T.D., Wei, W., Hoon, D.S.B., Price, N.D., Subramanian, N., Hill, J.A, Hadlock, J., Magis, A.T., Ribas, A., Lanier, L.L., Boyd, S.D., Bluestone, J.A., Chu, H., Hood, L., Gottardo, R., Greenberg, P.D., Davis, M.M., Goldman, J.D., Heath, J.R

VitaminDWiki titles with LONG-HAUL (16 as of Jan 2022)

Items found: 35
Title Modified
Fatigue and other long-haul problems appear to be associated with low Magnesium - Chambers Oct 2022 30 Oct, 2022
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and long-haul COVID-19 26 Sep, 2022
Long-Haul more prevalent among seniors - June - 2022 26 Jun, 2022
Long-Haul can now be claimed a work disability in the UK – June 2022 24 Jun, 2022
Half as much Long-Haul with Omicron - June 2022 19 Jun, 2022
Half as much Long-Haul with Omicron - June 2022 19 Jun, 2022
COVID Spike persists in Long Haul - June 2022 18 Jun, 2022
COVID Long-Haul prevalence increases with time: 50% at 4 months - meta June 2022 17 Jun, 2022
COVID and Magnesium - hypothesis, clinical trials, Long-Haul - Oct 2021 10 Jun, 2022
Mass disabling events: Polio, WWII, HIV, and COVID Long-Haul - June 2022 06 Jun, 2022
1 in 5 Americans who got COVID had Long-Haul for a while - CDC May 2022 27 May, 2022
Long-Haul COVID after 3 months – only 5 percent had even 30 ng of Vitamin D – April 2022 04 May, 2022
Hypothesis: 2 long-haul COVIDs: had mild symptoms and had needed ICU - April 2022 15 Apr, 2022
COVID Long-Haul at 49 weeks: overactive immune system, type O blood - March 2022 07 Apr, 2022
Children have less severe COVID, but just as much long-haul as adults - April 2022 06 Apr, 2022
Dietary Recommendations for COVID Long-Haul – March 2022 20 Mar, 2022
Mild Long-Haul 4.2 X more likely if type O blood - preprint March 16, 2022 20 Mar, 2022
Long-Haul COVID is somewhat less of a problem if vaccinated – Nov 2021 18 Mar, 2022
COVID Long-Haul NYT - Feb 2022 19 Feb, 2022
COVID Long-Haul fought by probiotics - Jan 2022 29 Jan, 2022
COVID Long-Haul predicted by 4 factors (Epstein-Barr virus, etc) – Jan 24, 2022 26 Jan, 2022
COVID Long-Haul predicted by 4 factors (Epstein-Barr virus, etc) – Jan 24, 2022 26 Jan, 2022
Some COVID-19 infection become COVID Long-Haul - Nov 2020 15 Dec, 2021
Epstein-Barr virus appears to cause Long-Haul and Chronic fatiure Syndrome (Vitamin D might help) 11 Dec, 2021
Long-haul after breakthrough COVID – Nov 2021 11 Dec, 2021
Long-haul, VAERS, Ivermectin, vaccines, etc. Drs. Seheult, Patrick: Video with table of contents - Sept 17, 2021 21 Sep, 2021
Your Brain on Covid-19 Long-Haul, Dr. Galland video and transcript - Aug 1, 2021 07 Aug, 2021
Long-haul COVID-19 blood tests at Mayo include vitamin D (but no results published) – July 2021 20 Jul, 2021
Most people with Long-Haul COVID-19 have low Vitamin D – July 2021 15 Jul, 2021
‘Long haul’ COVID rehab worse than cancer rehab, CDC – July 2021 13 Jul, 2021
Long-Haul COVID-19 occurred to 1 in 20 who had been asymptomatic (a study of 2 million with COVID-19) – June 2021 15 Jun, 2021
COVID-19 Long haul - excellent graph - systematic review May 26, 2021 26 May, 2021
Long-haul COVID-19 - another hint that Vitamin D should help - Dec 2020 16 Apr, 2021
Probably fewer long-haul COVID-19 problems when rejuvenated immune system (Vitamin D, etc.)– Dec 2020 21 Feb, 2021
Long-haul fatigue, etc. common after viral infections (SARS1,2, MERS, Swine, 1918,...) 21 Feb, 2021

VitaminDWiki titles with EPSTEIN or EBV (13 as of Jan 2022 )

This list is automatically updated

Items found: 16
Title Modified
Epstein-Barr Virus probably causes Long-COVID, CFS, and MS - many studies 02 Oct, 2022
Hypothesis: Smoking reduces Vitamin D, which activates EBV, which causes lung cancer – Jan 2022 04 Mar, 2022
Epstein-Barr Virus increases the risk of many health problems – many studies 03 Mar, 2022
Epstein-Barr virus increases risk of Multiple Sclerosis by 32X - Jan 2022 20 Feb, 2022
COVID Long-Haul predicted by 4 factors (Epstein-Barr virus, etc) – Jan 24, 2022 26 Jan, 2022
COVID Long-Haul predicted by 4 factors (Epstein-Barr virus, etc) – Jan 24, 2022 26 Jan, 2022
Epstein-Barr virus increases risk of Multiple Sclerosis by 32X - Jan 2022 15 Jan, 2022
Epstein Barr Virus and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 13 Dec, 2021
Multiple Sclerosis etc. strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (and vitamin D) 12 Dec, 2021
Epstein-Barr virus appears to cause Long-Haul and Chronic fatiure Syndrome (Vitamin D might help) 11 Dec, 2021
Epstein-Barr is yet another virus that deactivates the Vitamin D receptor (COVID later suspected as well)– 2010 17 Oct, 2021
Multiple Sclerosis risk increased if both Epstein-Bar Virus and low sun (vitamin D) – Aug 2021 26 Aug, 2021
Hypothesis of Autoimmunity which includes Epstein-Barr Virus and Vitamin D Deficiency – 2012 26 Aug, 2021
Vitamin D can inhibit enveloped virus (e.g. Corona, Herpes, Zoster, Epstein, Hepatitis, RSV) – March 2011 08 Feb, 2021
Multiple Sclerosis risk factors – Vitamin D, parasites, and EBV – 2015 05 Jan, 2016
Vitamin D can inhibit enveloped virus (e.g. Herpes, Zoster, Epstein, Hepatitis) – March 2011 04 Oct, 2014

Study was reported in the New York Times

New Research Hints at 4 Factors That May Increase Chances of Long Covid

  • "Still, Dr. Deeks said: “They’ve identified these four major factors. Each is biologically plausible, consistent with theories that other people are pursuing, and importantly, each is actionable. If these pathways get confirmed, we as clinicians can actually design interventions to make people better. That is the take-home message.”
  • "Of patients reporting three or more symptoms, 95 percent had one or more of the four biological factors identified in the study when they were diagnosed with Covid-19, Dr. Heath said."
  • "The most influential factor appeared to be autoantibodies, which were associated with two-thirds of the cases of long Covid, Dr. Heath said. Each of the other three factors showed up in about a third of the cases, he said, and there was considerable overlap, with several factors identified in some patients."
  • "That some patients had reactivated Epstein-Barr virus also made sense, Dr. Nath said, because other diseases have reawakened that virus, and its reactivation has been linked to conditions like chronic fatigue syndrome, which some cases of long Covid resemble, and multiple sclerosis. Dr. Deeks said it might be possible to give antivirals or immunotherapy to patients with reactivated Epstein-Barr virus.""

Study was reported in WSJ - Jan 31, 2022

The New Clues About Who Will Develop Long Covid

Another study found 5 COVID symptoms predicted Long-Haul - Jan 2022

Immunoglobulin signature predicts risk of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome
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Created by admin. Last Modification: Monday January 31, 2022 17:00:17 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 13)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
16968 Immunoglobulin signature.pdf PDF 2022 admin 31 Jan, 2022 16:59 3.84 Mb 77
16926 LH EBV.jpg admin 26 Jan, 2022 13:45 33.20 Kb 239
16925 Long-Haul Symptoms.jpg admin 26 Jan, 2022 13:45 44.44 Kb 264
16924 4 factors that predict long-haul_compressed.pdf PDF 2022 admin 26 Jan, 2022 13:45 1.04 Mb 106
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