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COVID Long-Haul at 49 weeks: overactive immune system, type O blood - March 2022


Persistent Overactive Cytotoxic Immune Response in a Spanish Cohort of Individuals With Long-COVID: Identification of Diagnostic Biomarkers

Front. Immunol., 25 March 2022 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.848886
Miguel Galán1†, Lorena Vigón1†, Daniel Fuertes2, María Aránzazu Murciano-Antón3, Guiomar Casado-Fernández1, Susana Domínguez-Mateos3, Elena Mateos1,4, Fernando Ramos-Martín1, Vicente Planelles5, Montserrat Torres1, Sara Rodríguez-Mora1,4, María Rosa López-Huertas1,4*‡ and Mayte Coiras1,4*‡ on behalf of Multidisciplinary Group of Study of COVID-19 (MGS-COVID)
1Immunopathology Unit, National Center of Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
2School of Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
3Family Medicine, Centro de Salud Doctor Pedro Laín Entralgo, Madrid, Spain
4Biomedical Research Center Network in Infectious Diseases (CIBERINFEC), Madrid, Spain
5Division of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, United States

Differences at 49 weeks: subset of table in PDF
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Long-COVID is a new emerging syndrome worldwide that is characterized by the persistence of unresolved signs and symptoms of COVID-19 more than 4 weeks after the infection and even after more than 12 weeks. The underlying mechanisms for Long-COVID are still undefined, but a sustained inflammatory response caused by the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in organ and tissue sanctuaries or resemblance with an autoimmune disease are within the most considered hypotheses. In this study, we analyzed the usefulness of several demographic, clinical, and immunological parameters as diagnostic biomarkers of Long-COVID in one cohort of Spanish individuals who presented signs and symptoms of this syndrome after 49 weeks post-infection, in comparison with individuals who recovered completely in the first 12 weeks after the infection. We determined that individuals with Long-COVID showed significantly increased levels of functional memory cells with high antiviral cytotoxic activity such as CD8+ TEMRA cells, CD8±TCR?d+ cells, and NK cells with CD56+CD57+NKG2C+ phenotype. The persistence of these long-lasting cytotoxic populations was supported by enhanced levels of CD4+ Tregs and the expression of the exhaustion marker PD-1 on the surface of CD3+ T lymphocytes.
With the use of these immune parameters and significant clinical features such as lethargy, pleuritic chest pain, and dermatological injuries, as well as demographic factors such as female gender and O+ blood type, a Random Forest algorithm predicted the assignment of the participants in the Long-COVID group with 100% accuracy. The definition of the most accurate diagnostic biomarkers could be helpful to detect the development of Long-COVID and to improve the clinical management of these patients.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


Mild Long-Haul 4.2 X more likely if type O blood (has no A or B antigens)

Mild Long-Haul 4.2 X more likely if type O blood - preprint March 16, 2022


23 VitaminDWiki pages had LONG HAUL in the title as of April 2022

Items found: 35
Title Modified
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and long-haul COVID-19 26 Sep, 2022
Long-Haul more prevalent among seniors - June - 2022 26 Jun, 2022
Long-Haul can now be claimed a work disability in the UK – June 2022 24 Jun, 2022
Half as much Long-Haul with Omicron - June 2022 19 Jun, 2022
Half as much Long-Haul with Omicron - June 2022 19 Jun, 2022
COVID Spike persists in Long Haul - June 2022 18 Jun, 2022
COVID Long-Haul prevalence increases with time: 50% at 4 months - meta June 2022 17 Jun, 2022
COVID and Magnesium - hypothesis, clinical trials, Long-Haul - Oct 2021 10 Jun, 2022
Mass disabling events: Polio, WWII, HIV, and COVID Long-Haul - June 2022 06 Jun, 2022
1 in 5 Americans who got COVID had Long-Haul for a while - CDC May 2022 27 May, 2022
Long-Haul COVID after 3 months – only 5 percent had even 30 ng of Vitamin D – April 2022 04 May, 2022
Hypothesis: 2 long-haul COVIDs: had mild symptoms and had needed ICU - April 2022 15 Apr, 2022
COVID Long-Haul at 49 weeks: overactive immune system, type O blood - March 2022 07 Apr, 2022
Children have less severe COVID, but just as much long-haul as adults - April 2022 06 Apr, 2022
Dietary Recommendations for COVID Long-Haul – March 2022 20 Mar, 2022
Mild Long-Haul 4.2 X more likely if type O blood - preprint March 16, 2022 20 Mar, 2022
Long-Haul COVID is somewhat less of a problem if vaccinated – Nov 2021 18 Mar, 2022
COVID Long-Haul NYT - Feb 2022 19 Feb, 2022
COVID Long-Haul fought by probiotics - Jan 2022 29 Jan, 2022
COVID Long-Haul predicted by 4 factors (Epstein-Barr virus, etc) – Jan 24, 2022 26 Jan, 2022
COVID Long-Haul predicted by 4 factors (Epstein-Barr virus, etc) – Jan 24, 2022 26 Jan, 2022
Some COVID-19 infection become COVID Long-Haul - Nov 2020 15 Dec, 2021
Epstein-Barr Virus may cause Long-Haul, CFS, and MS (Vitamin D should help) 11 Dec, 2021
Epstein-Barr virus appears to cause Long-Haul and Chronic fatiure Syndrome (Vitamin D might help) 11 Dec, 2021
Long-haul after breakthrough COVID – Nov 2021 11 Dec, 2021
Long-haul, VAERS, Ivermectin, vaccines, etc. Drs. Seheult, Patrick: Video with table of contents - Sept 17, 2021 21 Sep, 2021
Your Brain on Covid-19 Long-Haul, Dr. Galland video and transcript - Aug 1, 2021 07 Aug, 2021
Long-haul COVID-19 blood tests at Mayo include vitamin D (but no results published) – July 2021 20 Jul, 2021
Most people with Long-Haul COVID-19 have low Vitamin D – July 2021 15 Jul, 2021
‘Long haul’ COVID rehab worse than cancer rehab, CDC – July 2021 13 Jul, 2021
Long-Haul COVID-19 occurred to 1 in 20 who had been asymptomatic (a study of 2 million with COVID-19) – June 2021 15 Jun, 2021
COVID-19 Long haul - excellent graph - systematic review May 26, 2021 26 May, 2021
Long-haul COVID-19 - another hint that Vitamin D should help - Dec 2020 16 Apr, 2021
Probably fewer long-haul COVID-19 problems when rejuvenated immune system (Vitamin D, etc.)– Dec 2020 21 Feb, 2021
Long-haul fatigue, etc. common after viral infections (SARS1,2, MERS, Swine, 1918,...) 21 Feb, 2021

Created by admin. Last Modification: Monday April 11, 2022 15:36:49 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 7)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
17349 Overactive Cytotoxic Immune Response long-haul_CompressPdf.pdf PDF 2022 admin 07 Apr, 2022 17:18 1.16 Mb 44
17348 long long haul.jpg admin 07 Apr, 2022 17:15 36.88 Kb 93
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