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Peritoneal dialysis probably consumes a lot more vitamin D than haemodialysis

Peritoneal dialysis filters Vitamin D from the blood
It needs to be replaced.

Several items on this page

Peritoneal dialysis and low Vitamin D - April 2014

Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations are more deficient/insufficient in peritoneal dialysis than haemodialysis patients in a sunny climate
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics DOI: 10.1111/jhn.12234; Article first published online: 10 APR 2014
K. Hanna1,k.hanna@qut.edu.au, R. G. Fassett2,3, E. Gill2, H. Healy2, M. Kimlin1, L. Ross2 andS. Ash1
1Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
2Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
3The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Background: Research has identified associations between serum 25(OH)D and a range of clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease and wider populations. The present study aimed to investigate vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in dialysis patients and the relationship with vitamin D intake and sun exposure.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was used. Participants included 30 peritoneal dialysis (PD) (43.3% male; 56.87 ± 16.16 years) and 26 haemodialysis (HD) (80.8% male; 63.58 ± 15.09 years) patients attending a department of renal medicine. Explanatory variables were usual vitamin D intake from diet/supplements (IU day−1) and sun exposure (min day−1). Vitamin D intake, sun exposure and ethnic background were assessed by questionnaire. Weight, malnutrition status and routine biochemistry were also assessed. Data were collected during usual department visits. The main outcome measure was serum 25(OH)D (nm).

Results: Prevalence of inadequate/insufficient vitamin D intake differed between dialysis modality, with 31% and 43% found to be insufficient (<50 nm) and 4% and 33% found to be deficient (<25 nm) in HD and PD patients, respectively (P < 0.001). In HD patients, there was a correlation between diet and supplemental vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D (ρ = 0.84, P < 0.001) and average sun exposure and 25(OH)D (ρ = 0.50, P < 0.02). There were no associations in PD patients. The results remained significant for vitamin D intake after multiple regression, adjusting for age, gender and sun exposure.

Conclusions: The results highlight a strong association between vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D in HD but not PD patients, with implications for replacement recommendations. The findings indicate that, even in a sunny climate, many dialysis patients are vitamin D deficient, highlighting the need for exploration of determinants and consequences.

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See also VitaminDWiki

Overview Kidney and vitamin D contains the following summary

  • FACT: Kidney is the primary way to activate vitamin D
  • FACT: When the Kidney has problems, there is less active vitamin D (Calcitriol) for the body
  • FACT: When the Kidney has problems, there is increased death due to many factors - many of which are associated with lack of Calcitriol
  • FACT: There are many on-going intervention clinical trials trying to determine how much of what kind of vitamin D is needed to treat the problem
  • FACT: One Randomized Controlled Trial has proven that Vitamin D treats CKD
  • FACT: Taking extra Vitamin D, in various forms, does not cause health problems - even if poor kidney
  • Suggestion: Increase vitamin D getting into body now - and increase co-factors so that the vitamin D can be better used
      Sun, UV lamp, Vitamin D supplement - probably > 5,000 IU,
    Calcitriol - which bypasses the need for the kidney to activate vitamin D
      Problems with Calcitriol however: typically only lasts for a few hours, also, possible complications
        Update: Pre-cursor of active vitamin D made from plants is better than calcitriol – Sept 2012
  • Category Kidney and Vitamin D contains 185 items

Peritoneal Dialysis nicely treated by active vitamin D – July 2013 -which shows the benefits of vitamin D supplementation
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See also Web

  • Some hemodialysis machines decrease the vitamin D level by 17% compared to the other machines
    “Impact of the type of dialysis membranes on the circulating concentration of markers of vitamin D metabolism” is at
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28222207
  • Dialysis Wikipedia
    Hemodialysis, Paediatric Dialysis, Peritoneal dialysis, Hemofiltration, Hemodiafiltration. Intestinal dialysis

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Effects of vitamin D on parathyroid hormone and clinical outcomes in peritoneal dialysis: a narrative review.

J Nephrol. 2014 Jul 11. [Epub ahead of print]
Russo R1, Ruospo M, Cozzolino M, De Nicola L, Icardi A, Paoletti E, Mazzaferro S.
1Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Consorziale, Policlinico di Bari, Piazza G. Cesare, 11, 70124, Bari, Italy, roberto.russo at policlinico.ba.it.

Vitamin D deficiency is very prevalent in dialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients show lower levels of cholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) than hemodialysis patients. We conducted a systematic narrative review to assess the effects of vitamin D therapy on control of secondary hyperparathyroidism and clinical outcomes induced by vitamin D pleiotropic effects. Medline database was searched for cohort and intervention studies reporting data on vitamin D (all sterols including synthetic analogs) and peritoneal dialysis without language restriction. Two authors independently extracted data. Twenty-nine observational and eleven interventional studies were identified for inclusion (1,036 subjects). PTH levels decreased in twenty-nine studies, increased in one study and remained stable in ten studies. Thirty-three studies analyzed the oral route for vitamin D administration, ten the intraperitoneal, one the subcutaneous and one the intravenous. A significant decrease of peritonitis risk was observed in two studies. Proteinuria decreased in four studies and remained stable in one study. Peritoneal protein loss decreased in one study and was stable in two studies. Studies on the therapeutic effects of vitamin D in PD are limited and describe small population samples. Moreover, vitamin D compounds do not consistently reduce PTH levels. The administration of active vitamin D in PD may have interesting pleiotropic effects such as decreasing proteinuria and peritoneal protein loss. According to these effects, vitamin D could help to preserve residual renal function and ensure efficient peritoneal membrane dialysance.

PMID: 25012237


Peritoneal Dialysis associated with Global Cognitive Impairment (via low vitamin D) Dec 2015

Vitamin D Status Is an Independent Risk Factor for Global Cognitive Impairment in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
PLoS One. 2015 Dec 2;10(12):e0143782. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143782. eCollection 2015.
.Liu GL1, Pi HC2, Hao L1, Li DD1, Wu YG1, Dong J2.

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment (CI) in the general population, but VD status in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients has not been investigated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum VD levels and global and specific cognitive functions in PD patients.

DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, simultaneously conducted at two PD centers.

PATIENTS: Clinically stable patients (n = 273) undergoing PD for at least 3 months were enrolled over a period of one year.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic and comorbidity data were recorded, and routine biochemical parameters and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels of overnight fasted patients were determined. Global cognitive function was assessed by the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) score; executive function, by the trail making tests (Trails A and B ); and immediate memory, delayed memory, and language ability by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) sub-tests.

RESULTS: In the univariate analysis, serum 25(OH) D levels significantly correlated with 3MS scores (r = -0.139; P = 0.02), and Trail A (r = -0.188; P = 0.002) and B (r = -0.154; P = 0.01) completion times. In the multivariate analysis, 25(OH) D was found to be independently associated with global CI, but not with executive dysfunction. Serum 25(OH) D could not predict scores of immediate/delayed memory and language ability.

CONCLUSIONS: VD deficiency is highly prevalent in PD patients and is an independent risk factor for global CI in this patient cohort.

PMID: 26630385

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Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
6828 Dialysis costs.jpg admin 24 Jun, 2016 16:22 18.19 Kb 863
6827 Global Cognitive Impairment.pdf PDF 2015 admin 24 Jun, 2016 14:40 279.51 Kb 229
3794 Hemodialysis-en.svg.png admin 11 Apr, 2014 20:14 82.70 Kb 771
3793 Peritoneal_dialysis.gif admin 11 Apr, 2014 20:14 11.37 Kb 806
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