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Vitamin D fortification of the innate immune system can be limited by 15 genes – April 2020

Key Vitamin D Target Genes with Functions in the Immune System

by Oona Koivisto ,Andrea Hanel and Carsten Carlberg
School of Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041140 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 14 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 19 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D on Immune Function) the only one as of April 2020


This study does not mention those genes which restrict how much vitamin D gets to and remains in the blood
   and those genes which restrict how much vitamin D gets from the blood the cells.
This study does not mention those genes which reduce the foritification of the adaptive immune system.

Immunity category starts with

258 items in Immunity category

    see also

Virus category listing has 1321 items along with related searches

Overview Influenza and vitamin D
Vitamin D helps both the innate and adaptive immune systems fight COVID-19 – Jan 2022
Vitamin D aids the clearing out of old cells (autophagy) – many studies
600,000 IU of Vitamin D (total) allowed previously weak immune systems to fight off a virus antigen - Nov 2020
Search for treg OR "t-cell" in VitaminDWiki 1440 items as of Jan 2020
141 VitaminDWiki pages contained "infection" in title (June 2021)
Search VitaminDWik for BACTERIA in title 25 items as of Aug 2019
Vitamin D and the Immune System – chapter Aug 2019
7X less risk of influenza if Vitamin D levels higher than 30 ng – Oct 2017
Common cold prevented and treated by Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea – review April 2018
Vitamin D improves T Cell immunity – RCT Feb 2016
Immune system - great 11-minute animated video - Aug 2021
   Only the brain is more complex, nothing about Vitamin D

18 titles in VitaminDWiki contained INNATE or ADAPTIVE as of Jan 2023
Increasing publications on vitamin D and Infection

46 studies are in both Immunity and Virus categories

A few of the recent Immunity and Vitamin D studies

Vitamin D Receptor is associated in over 58 autoimmune studies

Genetics category listing contains the following

328 articles in the Genetics category

see also

Vitamin D blood test misses a lot
in Visio for 2023

  • Vitamin D from coming from tissues (vs blood) was speculated to be 50% in 2014, and by 2017 was speculated to be 90%
  • Note: Good blood test results (> 40 ng) does not mean that a good amount of Vitamin D actually gets to cells
  • A Vitamin D test in cells rather than blood was feasible (2017 personal communication)
  •    Commercially available 2019
    • However, test results would vary in each tissue due to multiple genes
  • Good clues that Vitamin D is being restricted from getting to the cells
    1) A vitamin D-related health problem runs in the family
    2) Slightly increasing Vitamin D shows benefits (even if conventional Vitamin D test shows an increase)
    3) Vitamin D Receptor test (<$30) scores are difficult to understand in 2016
    • easier to understand the VDR 23andMe test results analyzed by FoundMyFitness in 2018

    4) Back Pain

Vitamin D Receptor activation can be increased by any of: Resveratrol,  Omega-3,  MagnesiumZinc,   Quercetin,   non-daily Vit D,  Curcumin, intense exercise,   Ginger,   Essential oils, etc  Note: The founder of VitaminDWiki uses 10 of the 12 known VDR activators

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

The biologically active form of vitamin D3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), modulates innate and adaptive immunity via genes regulated by the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR). In order to identify the key vitamin D target genes involved in these processes, transcriptome-wide datasets were compared, which were obtained from a human monocytic cell line (THP-1) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated in vitro by 1,25(OH)2D3, filtered using different approaches, as well as from PBMCs of individuals supplemented with a vitamin D3 bolus. The led to the genes ACVRL1, CAMP, CD14, CD93, CEBPB, FN1, MAPK13, NINJ1, LILRB4, LRRC25, SEMA6B, SRGN, THBD, THEMIS2 and TREM1. Public epigenome- and transcriptome-wide data from THP-1 cells were used to characterize these genes based on the level of their VDR-driven enhancers as well as the level of the dynamics of their mRNA production. Both types of datasets allowed the categorization of the vitamin D target genes into three groups according to their role in

  • (i) acute response to infection,
  • (ii) infection in general and
  • (iii) autoimmunity.

In conclusion, 15 genes were identified as major mediators of the action of vitamin D in innate and adaptive immunity and their individual functions are explained based on different gene regulatory scenarios.

From the PDF
Figure 5. Functional profile of key immune-related vitamin D target genes.
Schematic picture of a cell indicating the main location of the proteins encoded by the 15 key genes.
The information is based on GeneCards (www.genecards.org) and publications cited in the text.
The classification of the proteins (group 1: orange, group 2: green, group 3: blue) is based on their transcriptome profile (Figure 4).
The main immune-related function of the protein groups is indicated in red.

Created by admin. Last Modification: Sunday April 19, 2020 14:47:59 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 8)

Attached files

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13749 Immunity F5.jpg admin 19 Apr, 2020 50.35 Kb 451
13748 Key Vitamin D Target Genes with Functions in the Immune System.pdf admin 19 Apr, 2020 3.59 Mb 603