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Obese during childhood usually results in obese adult (M.R., not a surprise) - Aug 2022

Adiposity may confound the association between vitamin D and disease risk - a lifecourse Mendelian randomization study

Tom G Richardson 1 , Grace M Power 1 , George Davey Smith 1
Elife . 2022 Aug 8;11:e79798 doi: 10.7554/eLife.79798.

Background: Vitamin D supplements are widely prescribed to help reduce disease risk. However, this strategy is based on findings using conventional epidemiological methods which are prone to confounding and reverse causation.

Methods: In this short report, we leveraged genetic variants which differentially influence body size during childhood and adulthood within a multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) framework, allowing us to separate the genetically predicted effects of adiposity at these two timepoints in the lifecourse.

Results: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), there was strong evidence that higher childhood body size has a direct effect on lower vitamin D levels in early life (mean age: 9.9 years, range = 8.9-11.5 years) after accounting for the effect of the adult body size genetic score (beta = -0.32, 95% CI = -0.54 to -0.10, p=0.004). Conversely, we found evidence that the effect of childhood body size on vitamin D levels in midlife (mean age: 56.5 years, range = 40-69 years) is putatively mediated along the causal pathway involving adulthood adiposity (beta = -0.17, 95% CI = -0.21 to -0.13, p=4.6 × 10-17).

Conclusions: Our findings have important implications in terms of the causal influence of vitamin D deficiency on disease risk. Furthermore, they serve as a compelling proof of concept that the timepoints across the lifecourse at which exposures and outcomes are measured can meaningfully impact overall conclusions drawn by MR studies.
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VitaminDWiki - 36 studies in both categories infand-Child and Obesity

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