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The Convergence of Two Epidemics: Vitamin D Deficiency in Obese School-aged Children – Jan 2018

Journal of Pediatric Nursing, Vol 38, Jan–Feb 2018, Pages 20–26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2017.10.005
Linda Cheng,

• Obesity is a strong risk factor for vitamin D deficiency.
• Vitamin D deficiency in obese children is predictive of metabolic syndrome.
• The pediatric nurse should prevent, screen for, assess for, treat, and counsel on VDD.


Unfortunately, the publication is not very up-to-date

  • No recommendation for time in the sun
  • No mention that other forms of Vitamin D bioavailable Vitamin D
  • No mention that most countries still do not fortify milk or other foods
  • No mention that low-fat milk has 2.5X less bio-available Vitamin D
  • No mention of increased needs for high risk categories such as dark skin
  • No change of Vitamin D dose with age (age 1-18)
    600 IU up to age 18 for any normal weight
    1200-1800 IU for age 18 - if obese - independent of actual weight
  • Recommends Vitamin D2 and well as D3
  • Considers sufficient vitamin D level to be just 20 ng/mL

Items in both categories Obesity and Infant-Child are listed here:

Items in both categories Obesity and Youth are listed here:

Publisher wants $36 for the PDF
 Download the PDF from SciHub via VitaminDWiki

Problem: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and obesity are two interrelated global epidemics that affect school-aged children. This article will review the relationship between VDD and obesity in school-aged children and implications it has for the pediatric nurse (PN).

Eligibility criteria: Original articles of studies, review articles and meta-analyses were selected from the past 5 years and pooled for review. These included obese school-aged children who had vitamin D insufficiency. The latest guidelines concerning the issue were also included.

Sample: Children 6–12 years of age with obesity and vitamin D insufficiency.

Results: This review strongly implies obesity in children being a strong risk factor for VDD. Prevention of VDD starts with lifestyle changes and adequate dietary intake of fortified foods and current screening recommendations for VDD are inconsistent. Vitamin D supplementation is recommended with inadequate intake or deficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels or signs of hypocalcemia. Supplementation doses differ based on whether VDD is being prevented or being treated and in obese children, the Endocrine Society recommends a dose that is two to three times higher than for normal weight children. Subclinical signs and symptoms of VDD include musculoskeletal pain, fractures, reduced bone density and reduced immunity.

Conclusions: Whereas obesity is a strong risk factor for VDD, more research is needed to clarify the role of VDD as a risk factor for obesity.

Implications: The PN plays an essential role in preventing, screening for, assessing for, treating and counseling on VDD in obese school-aged children.

Created by admin. Last Modification: Saturday October 21, 2017 10:34:31 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 6)

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