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Low vitamin D is big problem during pregnancies (Saudi Arabia in this case) – Aug 2022

Association between different levels of maternal vitamin-D status during pregnancy and maternal outcomes

Clin Nutr ESPEN . 2022 Aug;50:307-313. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2022.04.024
Mona Alanazi 1, Reda M Nabil Aboushady 2, Amel Dawod Kamel 3

Background and aims: Maternal vitamin-D deficiency is a significant health concern among pregnant women in the Middle East. Vitamin-D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with adverse maternal outcomes and an increased risk of pregnancy complications. This study aimed to identify the level of vitamin-D during pregnancy and examine the effect of different vitamin-D levels during pregnancy on maternal outcomes.

Methods: A descriptive correctional design was utilized in this research. This study was conducted at the obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinics at Shaqra general hospital, Saudi Arabia. A purposive sample of 221 pregnant women. Four tools were used: (1) a structured interviewing questionnaire; (2) laboratory records; (3) a vitamin-D risk factors assessment questionnaire; and (4) a follow-up sheet for maternal outcomes.


  • Nearly half of the study sample (46.2%) had insufficient vitamin-D in the blood,
  • 40.3% had sufficient level of vitamin-D, and
  • (13.6%) had a vitamin-D deficiency.

The non-modifiable risk factors for vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy were maternal age, dark skin pigmentation, hyperglycemia, anemia, mal-absorption syndrome, and genetic mutation. While the modifiable risk factors were inadequate sun exposure, middle-income status, low vitamin-D diet, obesity, and low consumption of milk products during pregnancy. There was a relationship between adverse pregnancy outcomes and a vitamin-D deficiency during pregnancy (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Maternal vitamin-D deficiency is significantly associated with a high risk for emergency c-section and complications during pregnancy and labor. Preconception intervention programs should focus on raising vitamin-D levels among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia to prevent vitamin-D deficient-linked adverse pregnancy outcomes.

VitaminDWiki - Pregnancy category contains

886 items in Pregnancy category

 - see also

VitaminDWiki - Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has

Vit. D
0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial

VitaminDWiki - 18 studies in both categories Pregnancy and Middle East

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Created by admin. Last Modification: Monday July 25, 2022 19:47:35 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 4)