BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015 Nov 26;15(1):314.
Al-Ajlan A1, Krishnaswamy S2, Alokail MS3, Aljohani NJ4, Al-Serehi A5, Sheshah E6, Alshingetti NM7, Fouda M8, Turkistani IZ9, Al-Daghri NM10.
1Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 10219, Riyadh, 11433, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. aalajl at hotmail.com.
2Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box, 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ksounder at gmail.com.
3Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box, 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. msa85 at yahoo.co.uk.
4Specialized Diabetes and Endocrine Center, King Fahad Medical City, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 11525, Saudi Arabia. najij at hotmail.com.
5Maternal-Fetal Medicine Department, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, 59406, Saudi Arabia. aalserehi at kfmc.med.sa.
6Diabetes Care Center, King Salman Bin Abdulaziz Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. eman_shesha at hotmail.com.
7Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, King Salman Bin Abdulaziz Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. alshingetti at yahoo.com.
8Department of Medicine, Endocrinology Division, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 12372, Saudi Arabia. monafoudaneel at yahoo.com.
9Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 12372, Saudi Arabia. iqbalzmt at hotmail.com.
10Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box, 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. aldaghri2011 at gmail.com.
Vitamin D deficiency is a common nutritional issue and dietary supplementation in the general population, including pregnant women, is generally advised. Appropriately high levels of vitamin D are expected to play a role in containing the glycemic and atherogenic profiles observed in pregnancy. However, the relation between vitamin D status and the lipid metabolic profile in Saudi women, who are known to suffer from chronic vitamin D deficiency and high incidence of obesity and type II DM, during the course of pregnancy is not known.
In this study, we analyzed the relation between serum vitamin D level and various serum metabolic markers among Saudi women (n = 515) in their first trimester of pregnancy (11.2 ± 3.4 weeks). Coefficients of Pearson correlation and Spearman rank correlation were calculated for Gaussian and non-Gaussian variables, respectively. Serum vitamin D status was defined as (in nmol/L): deficient (<25), insufficient (25-50); sufficient (50-75) and desirable (>75).
Results indicated that vitamin D status was sufficient in only 3.5 % of the study participants and insufficient and deficient in 26.2 % and 68.0 % of participants, respectively. Serum vitamin D values in the overall study population correlated positively with serum levels of total cholesterol (R = 0.172; p < 0.01), triglycerides (R = 0.184; p < 0.01) and corrected calcium (R = 0.141; p < 0.05). In the subgroup of vitamin D deficient subjects (n = 350), log serum vitamin D values correlated with serum triglycerides (R = 0.23; p = 0.002) and cholesterol (R = 0.26; p = 0.001).
The positive correlations between serum vitamin D and the atherogenic factors such as total cholesterol and triglycerides indicate a pro-atherogenic metabolic status in vitamin D deficient expectant mothers. This may represent an adaptation to the high metabolic demands of pregnancy.
Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D has the following summary
|IU||Cumulative Benefit||Blood level||Cofactors||Calcium||$*/month|
|200|| Better bones for mom|
with 600 mg of Calcium
|6 ng/ml increase||Not needed||No effect||$0.10|
|400|| Less Rickets (but not zero with 400 IU)|
3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
Fewer child seizures
|20-30 ng/ml||Not needed||No effect||$0.20|
|2000|| 2X More likely to get pregnant naturally/IVF |
2X Fewer dental problems with pregnancy
8X less diabetes
4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
5X less child asthma
2X fewer language problems age 5
|42 ng/ml||Desirable||< 750 mg||$1|
|4000|| 2X fewer pregnancy complications |
2X fewer pre-term births
|49 ng/ml|| Should have |
|< 750 mg||$3|
|6000||Probable: larger benefits for above items|
Just enough D for breastfed infant
More maternal and infant weight
|< 750 mg||$4|
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary
|0. Chance of not conceiving||3.4 times||Observe|
|1. Miscarriage||2.5 times||Observe|
|2. Pre-eclampsia||3.6 times||RCT|
|3. Gestational Diabetes||3 times||RCT|
|4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality||3.5 times||Observe|
|5. Premature birth||2 times||RCT|
|6. C-section - unplanned||1.6 times||Observe|
|Stillbirth - OMEGA-3||4 times||RCT - Omega-3|
|7. Depression AFTER pregnancy||1.4 times||RCT|
|8. Small for Gestational Age||1.6 times||meta-analysis|
|9. Infant height, weight, head size |
within normal limits
|10. Childhood Wheezing||1.3 times||RCT|
|11. Additional child is Autistic||4 times||Intervention|
|12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis||1.9 times||Observe|
|13. Preeclampsia in young adult||3.5 times||RCT|
|14. Good motor skills @ age 3||1.4 times||Observe|
|15. Childhood Mite allergy||5 times||RCT|
|16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits||2.5 times||RCT|
RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
Pages listed in BOTH of the categories Pregnancy and Middle East
- Very low Vitamin D in Indian pregnancies– 1 in 3 women not even have 20 ng – meta-analysis June 2021
- Fetal femur bone length associated with maternal vitamin D – March 2018
- Pregnant Arab women 25 X more likely to have low vitamin D if indoors a lot – April 2018
- Turkey recommended 1200 IU Vitamin D during pregnancy, only 1 in 7 took more than 1,000 IU – Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia recurrence reduced 2 X by 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – RCT July 2017
- Preterm labor 20 times more likely if low vitamin D, etc. (India) – Feb 2017
- Universal pregnancy vitamin D supplementation for a hospital in India – study stopped after 1 month – April 2016
- Ethnicity and low vitamin D levels during pregnancy – Jan 2016
- Saudi pregnancies – only 1 in 16 had even 20 nanograms of vitamin D – Nov 2015
- Burkas reduce vitamin D levels, which causes pregnancy problems – Oct 2015
- Turkey has yet not learned to GIVE vitamin D DURING pregnancy (5 ng average) – May 2014
- 33 percent of pregnant women in Turkey had undetectable vitamin D levels – May 2011
- Only 19 percent of Turkish mothers had normal levels of vitamin D – 2009
- Arab preterm infants often have less than 10 ng of vitamin D - 2010
- Majority of infant seizures in India due to lack of vitamin D - July 2010
Overview Middle East and vitamin D has the following