Pooled estimate of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis
J Health Popul Nutr. 2021 Jun 29;40(1):28. doi: 10.1186/s41043-021-00253-y.
Angeline Jeyakumar 1 2, Vidhya Shinde 3, Reshma Ravindran 3
Background: Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is a public health concern globally. In India, individual studies report high prevalence. However, lack of national data masks the true burden. This work determined the pooled prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women in India through a systematic review of literature and meta-analysis.
Methods: Three different search engines yielded 15 eligible articles. Study quality was assessed by 10 different criteria and summary of study quality was categorized as per Cochrane standards. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate pooled prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy pregnant women and heterogeneity among selected studies. A sample of n = 4088 was used to study the pooled prevalence among pregnant women.
Results: The random effects combined estimate was 32.35% (95% CI, (12.58-117.48). High heterogeneity (tau2 = 0.39, I2 = 100%) and high risk of bias was observed among the selected studies. The test for overall effect was observed to be z = 2.54(P = 0.01).
Conclusion: Pooled estimate > 30% emphasizes the need for screening through antenatal care services and initiate preventive measures to address the deficiency.
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- Less than 3 percent of pregnant women in Shanghai had even 30 ng of vitamin D – June 2021
- Every one of top 10 female health problems is associated with low Vitamin D
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25 ; Depression 19 ; Diabetes 40 ; Obesity 12 ; Hypertension 36 ; Breathing 30 ; Omega-3 33 ; Vitamin D Receptor 21
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Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summaryProblem
Reduces Evidence 0. Chance of not conceiving 3.4 times Observe 1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe 2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 times RCT 3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT 4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe 5. Premature birth 2 times RCT 6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 times Observe Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 times RCT - Omega-3 7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT 8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis 9. Infant height, weight, head size
within normal limits
RCT 10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT 11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention 12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 times Observe 13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 times RCT 14. Good motor skills @ age 3 1.4 times Observe 15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT 16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT
RCT = Randomized Controlled TrialVery low Vitamin D in Indian pregnancies– 1 in 3 women not even have 20 ng – meta-analysis June 2021
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