BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016 Jan 19;16(1):7. doi: 10.1186/s12884-016-0796-0.
Eggemoen ÅR1, Falk RS2, Knutsen KV3, Lagerløv P3, Sletner L4, Birkeland KI5,6, Jenum AK3.
1Department of General Practice, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Postboks 1130 Blindern, N-0318, Oslo, Norway. a.r.eggemoen at medisin.uio.no.
2Oslo Center for Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
3Department of General Practice, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Postboks 1130 Blindern, N-0318, Oslo, Norway.
4Department of Child and Adolescence Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.
5Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
6Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
Vitamin D was given to pregnant women – for ethical reasons
|< 10 ng||Mother was born in|
|45 %||South Asia|
|40 %||Middle East|
|26 %||Sub-Saharan Africa|
|1 %||Western Europe|
VitaminDWiki suspects the low Vitamin D levels due to
- Darker skin
- Desire to have lighter skin – so they kept out of the sun
- Traditional clothing style
Unfortunately not enough vitamin D was given to help much
See also VitaminDWiki
- Overview Dark skin births and Vitamin D
- Vitamin D levels rise during pregnancy – Oct 2016
22X more likely to have very low Vitamin D if Asian woman
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary
|0. Chance of not conceiving||3.4 times||Observe|
|1. Miscarriage||2.5 times||Observe|
|2. Pre-eclampsia||3.6 times||RCT|
|3. Gestational Diabetes||3 times||RCT|
|4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality||3.5 times||Observe|
|5. Premature birth||2 times||RCT|
|6. C-section - unplanned||1.6 times||Observe|
|Stillbirth - OMEGA-3||4 times||RCT - Omega-3|
|7. Depression AFTER pregnancy||1.4 times||RCT|
|8. Small for Gestational Age||1.6 times||meta-analysis|
|9. Infant height, weight, head size |
within normal limits
|10. Childhood Wheezing||1.3 times||RCT|
|11. Additional child is Autistic||4 times||Intervention|
|12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis||1.9 times||Observe|
|13. Preeclampsia in young adult||3.5 times||RCT|
|14. Good motor skills @ age 3||1.4 times||Observe|
|15. Childhood Mite allergy||5 times||RCT|
|16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits||2.5 times||RCT|
RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
To investigate ethnic differences in vitamin D levels during pregnancy, assess risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation in women with deficiency in early pregnancy.
This is a population-based, multiethnic cohort study of pregnant women attending Child Health Clinics for antenatal care in Oslo, Norway. Serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in 748 pregnant women (59 % ethnic minorities) at gestational weeks (GW) 15 (SD:3.6) and 28 (1.4). Women with 25(OH)D <37 nmol/L at GW 15 were for ethical reasons recommended vitamin D3 supplementation. Main outcome measure was 25(OH)D, and linear regression models were performed.
Severe deficiency (25(OH)D <25 nmol/L) was found at GW 15 in
- 45 % of women from South Asia,
- 40 % from the Middle East and
- 26 % from Sub-Saharan Africa, compared to
- 2.5 % in women from East Asia and
- 1.3 % of women from Western Europe.
Women from South Asia, the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa had mean values that were -28 (95 % CI:-33, -23), -24 (-29, -18) and -20 (-27, -13) nmol/L lower than in Western women, respectively. Ethnicity, education, season and intake of vitamin D were independently associated with 25(OH)D. At GW 28, the mean 25(OH)D had increased from 23 (SD:7.8) to 47 (27) nmol/L (p < 0.01) in women who were recommended vitamin D supplementation, with small or no change in women with sufficient vitamin D levels at baseline.
Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent among South Asian, Middle Eastern and African women. The serum levels of 25(OH)D increased significantly from GW 15 to 28 in vitamin D deficient women who received a recommendation for supplementation. This recommendation of vitamin D supplementation increased vitamin D levels in deficient women.
PMID: 26785795 [