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Cooked dried beans or peas (pulses) reduce uptake of Vitamin D, Vitamin K by the gut by half – several studies

The Presence of Pulses within a Meal can Alter Fat-Soluble Vitamin Bioavailability. - March 2019

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019 Mar 28:e1801323. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201801323.
Margier M1, Antoine T 1, Siriaco A 1, Nowicki M 1, Halimi C 1, Maillot M 2, Georgé S 3, Reboul E 1 Emmanuelle.Reboul at univ-amu.fr
1 INSERM, Aix Marseille Univ, C2VN, Marseille, France.
2 MS-Nutrition, Marseille, France.
3 CTCPA, Avignon.

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Wonder that a, b mean? - could not quickly find in the PDF

It is widely advised to increase pulse consumption. However, pulses are rich in molecules displaying lipid-lowering properties, including fibers, phytates, saponins and tannins. We thus explored the effects of pulses on fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability.

We assessed vitamin A (β-carotene and retinyl-palmitate), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and vitamin K (phylloquinone) bioaccessibility, i.e. micellarization after in vitro digestion of meals containing either potatoes (control), household-cooked or canned pulses. The obtained mixed micelles were delivered to Caco-2 cells to evaluate vitamin uptake. We then specifically assessed the impact of fibers, phytates, saponins and tannins on both phylloquinone (used as a model vitamin) bioaccessibility and uptake.

The presence of pulses significantly decreased both vitamin
bioaccessibility (up to

  • -65% for β-carotene,
  • -69% for retinyl-palmitate,
  • -45% for cholecalciferol,
  • - 53% for α-tocopherol and
  • -67% for phylloquinone) and

uptake (

  • -40% for retinyl-palmitate,
  • -67% for cholecalciferol,
  • -50% for α-tocopherol and
  • -57% for phylloquinone).

Effects on bioaccessibility, but not on uptake, were dependent on pulse cooking method. Phylloquinone bioaccessibility was specifically impacted by saponins, tannins and fibers while its uptake was impacted by saponins, fibers and phytates.

Pulses can alter fat-soluble micronutrient bioavailability. Pulses should thus be cooked appropriately and consumed within micronutrient-rich meals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Clipped from PDF

  • "It has also been shown that regular consumption of pulses can lead to decreased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels [14], suggesting an impact on lipid absorption and/or metabolism. This impact is likely due to pulse fiber content [15], but other pulse bioactive compounds such as phytates, saponins or polyphenols may also play important roles in this phenomenon [13]"
  • "Fat-soluble vitamin bioaccessibility and uptake are negatively correlated to the presence of fibers, phytates, saponins or tannins"
  • "Pulses components are acknowledged to impair mineral bioavailability [27], as well as to reduce lipid absorption 14"

VitaminDWiki observation before the second study

This study analyzed Vitamin uptake in an artificial intestine
Founder of VitaminDWiki does not recall seeing that pulses restrict
   the uptake of Vitamin D or Vitamin K
Wonder if pulses limit Vit D, Vit K in the real gut as well
The vitamins they tested were in olive oil
Suspect increased uptake if micelle or emulsion forms of Vitamins had been used instead
If this study is correct, oil-based Vitamin D should NOT be taken with a pulse meal

See also web

  • https://pulses.org/what-are-pulses
  • 10 things about Beans BlueZones
    • 4X more protein than from meat for the same cost
    • Beans are the only food that can fit into both a vegetable and a protein category,
  • Pulses in diet reduced lipids - meta-analysis - May 2014
    "Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials"
     Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
  • Calories consumed in Brazil: 13% from pulses

Cited by 11 studies as of Aug 2022


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Chickpeas reduced Vitamin D bio-availability by half -June 2020 (conference )

Evaluation of vitamin D bioaccessibility and iron solubility from test meals containing meat and/or cereals and/or legumes
Proceedings of the Nutrition SocietyVolume 79 Issue OCE2: 13th European Nutrition Conf...
Tiffany Antoine, Giulia Scorrano, Cristèle Icard-Vernière. Charlotte Halimi. Stéphane Georgé. Claire Mouquet-Rivier. Emmanuelle Reboul

Rethinking food systems from production to consumption, in order to provide better nutritional inputs at lower environmental cost, is a priority challenge for a sustainable future. Pulses present benefits that may improve the sustainability of our systems and diets, such as their ability to restore soils in nitrogen and their high contents in proteins, fibers and minerals. However, pulses also contain several bioactive compounds such as phytates or tannins that can negatively affect mineral absorption. Additionally, we recently showed in the laboratory that these bioactives, together with fibers and saponins, could negatively impact fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability. The objective of this study was thus to follow up vitamin D (as a model of fat-soluble vitamin) and iron (as a model of mineral) transfer to the aqueous phase of the bolus during digestion of meal containing or not pulses. To this aim, we performed in vitrodigestion using tests meals made of beef (as a model of meat) and/or semolina (as a model of cereals) and/or chickpeas (as a model of pulses). To identify the compounds responsible for the observed effects, we also performed in vitrodigestion using test meals made of potatoes supplemented or not in fibers, phytates, tannins and saponines. Vitamin D bioaccessibility and iron solubility were expressed as the ratio of vitamin D or iron recovered in the aqueous phase of the digestion on the total amount of vitamin D or iron recovered in the whole digesta, at the end of the digestion.

Our results showed that the presence of chickpeas within a meal induced a significant decrease of both vitamin D bioaccessibility (up to -56%, p < 0.05) and iron solubility (up to -28%, p < 0.05) compared to meals containing only meat and/or semolina. However, this effect was largely compensated for vitamin D by the fact that this vitamin was less stable (loss > 50%, p < 0.05) during the digestion of meal containing meat compared to meals containing only plant-based foods (i.e. semolina and chickpeas). Among the different bioactives, tannins appear to be the most deleterious regarding iron solubility, while both phytates and tannins were responsible for a decreased in vitamin D bioaccessibility.

Our results confirm that in some conditions, the presence of pulses within a meal can be deleterious regarding vitamin D and iron bioavailability. These data thus encourage research to propose dietary and technological solutions to tackle pulse negative effects on micronutrient bioavailability.

Pulses reduce Vitamin D bio-availability by half - June 2021 (same authors)

Evaluation of vitamin D bioaccessibility and mineral solubility from test meals containing meat and/or cereals and/or pulses using in vitro digestion
Food Chemistry Volume 347, 15 June 2021, 128621 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128621


  • Complex test meals containing vitamin D and minerals were digested in vitro.
  • Complex test meals were made of meat and/or semolina and/or chickpeas.
  • Chickpeas reduced vitamin D and mineral transfer to the aqueous phase during digestion.
  • The presence of meat induced a decrease in vitamin D stability.
  • Our model can be useful to screen micronutrient bioaccessibility from complex test meals.

In this study, we evaluated vitamin D and mineral (iron, zinc, magnesium) transfer to the bolus aqueous phase during the digestion of meals with/without pulses. We performed in vitro digestions using test meals made either of i) beef and/or semolina and/or chickpeas, or of ii) potatoes supplemented or not with fibers, phytates, tannins and saponins. Chickpea presence led to a decrease in vitamin D bioaccessibility (−56%, p ≤ 0.05) and mineral solubility (−28% for iron, p ≤ 0.05) compared with meals with beef and/or semolina only.
This effect was largely compensated for vitamin D by the fact that this vitamin was more stable during digestion of meals based on plant foods only than of meals with beef. Tannins were the most deleterious compounds for iron solubility, while phytates and tannins decreased vitamin D bioaccessibility. Agronomical or technical solutions to selectively decrease the amount in pulses of compounds that affect micronutrient bioavailability should be further explored.
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Vitamin D bioavailability in mice reduced by Chickpeas: 62%, meat: 67% - Feb 2023 (same authors)

Impact of pulses, starches and meat on vitamin D and K postprandial responses in mice
Food Chemistry Vol 402, 15 February 2023, 133922, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133922
TiffanyAntoineaAsmaEl AoudaKatherineAlvarado-RamosaCharlotteHalimiaDonatoVairoaStéphaneGeorgébEmmanuelleReboula


  • Chickpeas reduce vitamin D and K postprandial responses in mice compared to potatoes.
  • Meat reduces vitamin D and K postprandial responses in mice compared to potatoes.
  • Semolina did not impair vitamin postprandial responses in mice compared to potatoes.
  • Chickpeas and meat reduce vitamin D/K intestinal content in mice compared to potatoes.

In vitro experiments showed that i) phytates, tannins and saponins from pulses can alter vitamin D and K bioavailability and ii) meat decreased vitamin D bioaccessibility by impairing its stability during digestion. We aimed to confirm these results in vivo by force-feeding mice with emulsions containing either potatoes or semolina or chickpeas or meat.
Vitamin D and K plasma responses decreased after a gavage with chickpeas or meat compared with potatoes (−62 % and −67 %, respectively for vitamin D, −40 % and −64 %, respectively for vitamin K; p < 0.05). Vitamin D and K intestinal contents were also reduced in mice force-fed with chickpeas or meat compared with potatoes (from −64 to −83 % and from −76 to −84 %, respectively for vitamin D and from −7 to −59 % and from −7 to −90 %, respectively for vitamin K; p < 0.05). The results confirm that chickpea and meat compounds can decrease vitamin D and K bioavailability.
Adequate intakes of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) are essential for both organism development and healthy aging. The term “vitamin D” refers to a group of molecules belonging to the steroid family like cholesterol. Vitamin D3, which is the main dietary form of vitamin D, can either be found in small amounts in foods such as fatty fish and supplemented dairies, or synthesized by the skin under sun exposure (Reboul, 2015). “Vitamin K” refers to both vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinones), which belong to the terpenoid family. Vitamin K is mainly provided through the diet via green leafy vegetables and some fermented products (Shearer, 1992). Both vitamin D and K play key roles in bone metabolism (Ahmadieh and Arabi, 2011, Devine et al., 2002) and decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases (Tsugawa, 2015). Moreover, vitamin D participates in inhibiting cancerous cell growth (Kawa et al., 1997, Mantell et al., 2000) and vitamin K is involved in hemostasis by activating blood-clotting proteins (Nelsestuen, Zytkovicz, & Howard, 1974).

Improving the sustainability of our diets has become a priority during the past decades. In this context, increasing pulse consumption may be interesting as pulses present both environmental and nutritional benefits. Indeed, pulses are able to restore soils in nitrogen (Gan et al., 2015) and they present high contents in proteins, fibers and minerals (Margier et al., 2018). However, pulses also contain fairly high amounts of bioactive compounds such as phytates, saponins and tannins (Margier et al., 2018) that can interfere with the transfer of fat-soluble vitamin (including vitamin D3 and K1) to mixed micelles during in vitro digestion or with fat-soluble vitamin uptake by cultured intestinal cells (Antoine et al., 2021, Margier et al., 2019).

Surprisingly, we showed that vitamin D3 bioaccessibility from test meals containing meat (beef) was significantly lower than from test meals containing chickpeas or semolina (Antoine et al., 2021).

The aim of this study was thus to validate in vivo the decrease in vitamin D3 and/or K1 bioavailability observed in vitro (Antoine et al., 2021, Margier et al., 2019) when i) these vitamins were associated with chickpeas compared to semolina or potatoes, ii) vitamin D was associated to a test meals containing meat compared to test meals containing plant-based products only.

Section snippets

Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3), phylloquinone (Vitamine K1), retinyl acetate (internal standard for vitamin D extraction) and 5-apo-8′-carotenal (internal standard for vitamin K extraction), all > 95 % pure, were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, France). Isio4 oil was from Lesieur® (Asnières-sur-Seine, France).

Potatoes, semolina, and minced beef (5 % fat) were purchased from a local supermarket (Casino, France). Potatoes were cooked in hot water for 40 min. Semolina was...

Chickpeas and semolina contain higher amounts of phytates and tannins than potatoes
Table 1 shows that semolina and chickpeas contained a significant higher amount of phytates than potatoes (+267 % and + 272 %, p < 0.05, respectively). Potatoes display a lower level of saponins than chickpeas, but a higher level compared to semolina (–22 % and + 43 %, p < 0.05, respectively). Finally, chickpeas contained more tannins than semolina and potatoes (+2056 % and + 978 % p < 0.05). These compounds were not found in meat.

Chickpeas and meat are associated with decreased vitamin D and K postprandial plasma concentrations compared to potatoes and semolina.
Fig. 1A shows that compared with a gavage with potatoes, vitamin ...

The aim of this study was to challenge in vivo our results obtained in vitro about the impact of meal composition (semolina vs chickpeas vs meat) on fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability.

As vitamin D and K can behave differently in terms of bioavailability (Antoine et al., 2021, Margier et al., 2019), we used both molecules in this study to evaluate whether this effect was specific to a vitamin group.

We assessed vitamin D and K bioavailability in mice by measuring i) their appearance in plasma...

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